CHAPTER 1: THE WARS WE ARE LOSING
1 [Counterfeit Clinton biography] Oliver August, “Clinton’s Mentor Was Mao, hinese Readers Are Told,” The Times Online (London), July 21, 2004.
1 [Garcia Marquez counterfeit] Sergio Dahbar, “Papel Literario: Gabo deberia escribir una historia de piratas,” El Nacional, October 23, 2004.
3 [Thai brothel operator ran for office] Weerayut Chokchaimadon, “Set a Thief to Catch a Thief,” Korea Herald, November 17, 2003.
3 [Cambodian police—national help fight trafficking, but local take bribes from traffickers] Kathy Marks, “Cambodian Police Close Dozens of Child-Sex Brothels,” Independent (UK), January 25, 2003; Kathy Marks, “The Skin Trade: High-
Profile Investigations into Pedophilia Are Headline News,” Independent (UK), January 22, 2001, pp. 4–5.
5 [Number of countries having passed anti–human trafficking laws] According to the U.S. government, seventeen countries had specific, comprehensive, and enforced laws against trafficking in 2004. U.S. Department of State, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, “Trafficking in Persons Report,” June 14, 2004. http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2004/33187.htm
CHAPTER 2: GLOBAL SMUGGLERS ARE CHANGING YOUR WORLD
12 [Declining cost of telephone calls in the 1990s] “International Pricing and the Death of Distance,” International Telecommunication Union, TELECOM. http://www.itu.int/telecomwt99/press_service/information_for_the_press/press_ kit/backgrounders/backgrounders/telecoms_pricing-next.html#International 14 [Volume of the people trade] David Feingold, “Think Again: Human Trafficking,” Foreign Policy, forthcoming, 2005.
14 [Global drug seizures nearly double, 1990–2002] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, “2004 World Drug Report: Executive Summary,” 2004, p. 17.
15 [Small arms fuel nearly fifty wars] United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Small Arms. http://ochaonline.un.org/ webpage.asp?Page=528. Also: Small arms responsible for 4 million deaths in intrastate and regional conflicts since 1990; 14 million refugees from conflicts where small arms/light weapons are used (“The Extent and Dangers of the Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons Trade,” U.S. State Department fact sheet,
July 19, 2001).
15–16 [Haiti killer counterfeit “cough medicine”] Frances Williams, “WHO Launches Drive to Stamp Out Fake Drugs,” Financial Times, November 12, 2003, p. 14.
16 [Camdessus] Address by Michel Camdessus, managing director of the International Monetary Fund, at the Plenary Meeting of the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, Paris, February 10, 1998.
16 [Estimates of laundered money at 10 percent of world GDP] Peter Reuter and Edwin M. Truman, Chasing Dirty Money: The Fight against Money Laundering (Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 2004), p. 13.
17 [Washington consensus and economic reforms in the 1990s] Moises Naim, “Washington Consensus or Washington Confusion?” Foreign Policy, spring 2000, pp. 87–103; Moises Naim, “Washington Consensus: A Damaged Brand,” Financial Times, October 28, 2002, p. 15.
18 [Drop in average tariffs, 1980–2002] Robert Lawson and James Gwartney, “Economic Freedom Is on the Rise,” CATO Institute Daily Commentary, July 19, 2004. http://www.cato.org/dailys/07-19-04-2.html
19 [Trade growth] Supachai Panitchpakdi, WTO director-general, “The Doha Development Agenda: What’s at Stake for Business in the Developing World?” International Trade Forum, no. 2, 2003, pp. 4–5.
20 [Friedman, “golden straitjacket”] Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999), pp. 83ff.
Tools of the Trades
21–22 [Gaviria] Author interview with President Cesar Gaviria. Washington, January 25, 2005
22 [Growth in daily value of foreign exchange transactions] Gabriele Galati and Michael Melvin, “Why Has FX Trading Surged? Explaining the 2004 Triennial Survey,” BIS Quarterly Review, December 2004, p. 68; Tom Abate, “Banking’s Soldiers of Fortune: Foreign Exchange Traders on Front Line of Currency War,” San Francisco Chronicle, December 7, 2004.
23 [Growth in credit and debit cards in the United States] “A Durable Idea,” The Economist, February 14, 2005, p. 71.
24 [Online gaming industry] Bear Stearns estimate cited in U.S. Congress. House Committee on Financial Services, Financial Aspects of Internet Gaming: Good Gamble or Bad Bet? Statement of Rep. Sue Kelly, 107th Cong., 1st sess., July 12, 2001.
24 [Web based drug trafficking] Marc Kaufman, “Internet Drug Ring Broken,” Washington Post, April 21, 2005, p. A3.
New Sources, New Routes
26 [Moody] Author interview with James Moody, former senior FBI agent, January 6, 2005, Reston, Virginia.