The Weapons Wal-Mart
54 [Togo/UNITA] United Nations Security Council, Report of the Panel of Experts on Violations of Security Council Sanctions against UNITA, S/2003/937, Robert R. Fowler, March 10, 2000.
55 [Montesinos/FARC] El Espectador (Bogota), February 10, 2002 (via “Paper Reports Flourishing Arms-for-Drugs Trade with Colombian Rebels,” BBC Monitoring, BBC News online).
55 [On end-user certificates] Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Forum for Security Cooperation, Standard Elements of End-User Certificates and Verification Procedures for SALW Exports, Decisions, no. 5/04, November 17, 2004.
55–56 [Regional/civil conflict] Ann Hironaka, Neverending Wars: The International Community, Weak States, and the Perpetuation of Civil War (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005); Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler, “Murder by Numbers: Socio-Economic Determinants of Homicide and Civil War,” Centre for the Study of African Economies Series, Ref: WPS/2004–10, Oxford University; Ian Bannon and Paul Collier, eds., Natural Resources and Violent Conflict (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2003).
56 [Sampson quote] Anthony Sampson, The Arms Bazaar: From Lebanon To Lock-heed (New York: Viking, 1977), p. 340.
Own Your Own State
57–58 [Transdniester] Joby Warrick, “Dirty Bomb Warheads Disappear,” Washington Post, December 7, 2003, p. A1; Joby Warrick, “Smugglers Enticed by Dirty Bomb Component,” Washington Post, November 30, 2003, p. A1.
Armed Civil Society
59 [U.S. small arms stock] Small Arms Survey 2003, p. 61.
59 [List of “most-armed” countries] Ibid., pp. 64–65.
59 [England gun crime rates] for England and Wales; data for firearms other than air weapons. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/hosb0104.pdf
59 [European arms seizures] Small Arms Survey 2003, p. 71.
60 [Small arms in Europe] Mark Turner, “European Citizens ‘Heavily Armed,’ ” Financial Times, July 9, 2003, p. 11.
60 [Kampala, Uganda] Small Arms Survey 2003, p. 134.
60 [Mindanao] Ibid., p. 138.
60 [“Development denied” and direct/indirect effects] Ibid., chapter 4, pp. 125–68.
60–61 [Security business boom] Small Arms Survey 2001; referenced in Small Arms Survey 2003, p. 139 and fn. 30, p. 160; also see IBSSA (International Bodyguard and Security Services Association)—http://www.ibssa.org
61 [Cameroon and Nigeria examples] Small Arms Survey 2003, p. 140 (Cameroon) and p. 139 (Kaduna).
Ghosts and Borders
62 [On brokers] Brian Wood and Johan Peleman, “Making the Deal and Moving the Goods: The Role of Brokers and Shippers,” chapter 6, in Lumpe, Running Guns, pp. 129–54.
62 [Rules vary country to country] Emanuela-Chiara Gillard, “What’s Legal? What’s Illegal?” Chapter 2, in Lumpe, Running Guns, pp. 41–42.
62 [Rwanda and Congo deals] Wood and Peleman, “Making the Deal,” pp. 136–39; “Un Francais est ecroue pour trafic d’armes de guerre avec le Rwanda,” Le Monde, February 2, 1995.
63 [Slovakia/Sudan story] Johnson-Thomas, “Anatomy of a Shady Deal,” pp. 13–25.
63 [Antonov crash in Monrovia] United Nations Security Council, Report of the Panel of Experts Appointed Pursuant To Security Council Resolution 1395 (2002), Paragraph 4, in Relation to Liberia, S/2002/470, April 19, 2002.
63 [List of embargoes] Gillard, “What’s Legal?” p. 33.
63 [ECOWAS moratorium] Sarah Meek, “Combating Arms Trafficking: Progress and Prospects,” chapter 8, in Lumpe, Running Guns, pp. 194–97.
63–64 [UN conference] United Nations, Report of the United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects, A/CONF. 192/15, New York, July 2001.
64 [Bolton intervention] Colum Lynch, “U.S. Fights UN Accord to Control Small Arms Sales,” Washington Post, July 10, 2001, p. A1.
64 [LaPierre comment] Jim Burns, “U.S. Fires First Shot at UN Anti-Gun Conference,” CNSNews.com, July 10, 2001; “U.S. Blocks Small Arms Controls,” BBC News Online, July 10, 2001.
64 [UN response] UN Department of Public Information, “Setting the Record Straight,” July 2001. www.un.org/depts/dda/cab/smallarms/facts.htm
64 [Kolowa “five cows” anecdote] Karl Vick, “Small Arms’ Global Reach Uproots Tribal Traditions,” Washington Post, July 8, 2001, p. A1.
CHAPTER 4: NO BUSINESS LIKE DRUG BUSINESS
65–66 [Don Alfonzo] Author interview with “Don Alfonzo,” Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, September 10, 2004.
67 [Guzman] Chris Kraul and Cecilia Sanchez, “Mexican Border Town Tries to Clean Up Its Image,” Los Angeles Times, February 12, 2005, p. A3; Chris Kraul, “Official Says Tijuana, Gulf Cartels Have United,” Los Angeles Times, January 14, 2005, p. A4.
67 [Mexican organizations] “Drugs in Mexico: War without End,” The Economist, March 4, 2004.
Dispatches from the Front
68 [U.S. annual antidrug expenditure] Total estimates vary due to the number of separate programs involved and are subject to political interpretation. The U.S. government estimated federal antidrug spending at $12.1 billion for 2004; unofficial estimates ranged as high as $20 billion. Moreover, adding state and local expenses may increase the total by up to 100 percent, though more likely somewhat less. See, for instance, Office of National Drug Control Policy, National Drug Control Strategy 2004 Fact Sheet, p. 3. http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs04/strategy_fs.pdf; Gary E. Johnson, “Take It from a Businessman: The War on Drugs Is Just Money Down the Drain,” MotherJones.com, July 10, 2001; National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001), p. 1.
68 [drug arrests] Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in America: FBI Uniform Crime Reports 2003 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004), p. 270, table 29.
68 [DC statistics on high school students, jail, and drug seizures] “Washington, DC, Profile of Drug Indicators,” Office of National Drug Control Policy, Drug Policy Information Clearinghouse, at ONDCP website.
68 [2004 DC seizures] Drug Enforcement Administration website: dea.gov, DEA State Fact Sheets, “Washington DC 2005.” http://www.dea.gov/ pubs/states/washingtondc.html
68–69 [on Washington teenagers’ access to drugs] Author interviews with students in Washington-area private high schools, January–February 2004.
69 [Afghanistan 2004 poppy production/acreage] According to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime, 2004 World Drug Report (Vienna: UNDCP, 2004), p. 206; 3,600 metric tons of opium were produced from 80,000 hectares of land in Afghanistan in 2003, according to Tom Shanker, “Pentagon Sees Antidrug Effort in Afghanistan,” New York Times, March 25, 2005, p. A1. Production rose 64 percent in 2004.
69–70 [Afghan drug transformation; anecdotes on cost of labor and bribes] “Afghan Poppies Proliferate: As Drug Trade Widens, Labs and Corruption Flourish,” Washington Post, July 10, 2003, p. A1; “Karzai: Don’t Spray Our Poppies,” CBSNews.com, November 19, 2004, at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/11/18/world/main656576.shtml
70 [FARC and AUC drug revenue] Mark S. Steinitz, “The Terrorism and Drug Connection in Latin America’s Andean Region,” CSIS Policy Papers on the Americas, vol. 13, study 5; Angel Rabasa and Peter Chalk, Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and Its Implications for Regional Stability (Santa Monica: RAND Project Air Force, 2001).
70 [Colombia: new strains of coca] Joshua Davis, “The Mystery of the Coca Plant that Wouldn’t Die,” Wired, November 2004; Andy Webb-Vidal, “It’s Super-Coca! Modified Bush Boosts Narcotics Output,” Financial Times, December 7, 2004, p. 4.
70–71 [Canadian supply of B.C. bud] Sarah Kershaw, “Violent New Front in Drug War Opens on the Canadian Border: Potent Marijuana at Center of Smuggling Chain,” New York Times, March 5, 2005, p. A1.
The End of Illusions
71 [Global drug market statistics] Global Illicit Drug Trends, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, at http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/global_illicit_drug_ trends.html
71 [Yaa baa] Kevin Fagan, “Southeast Asia Is Reeling from Combination of Meth, AIDS,” San Francisco Chronicle, May 29, 2003, p. A7.
72 [Tajikistan] “Drugs in Central Asia: Deadly Traffic,” The Economist, March 29, 2003, pp. 38–39; see also Iran: Molly Moore, “Iran Fighting a Losing Drug War,” and Molly Moore, “Once Hidden, Drug Addiction in Changing Iran,” both Washington Post, July 18, 2001, pp. A1 and A26.
72 [Yunnan] “China-Burma: Heroin Is King at Border Crossing,” Inter Press Service, March 26, 2004; “Condom, Needle Distribution Highlights AIDS Issue in S. W. China,” Kyodo News International, March 9, 2004.
73 [Nigerian Southeast Asian networks] Felix Umoru, “A Tough War,” Financial Times, December 1, 2002; Benjamin Adedeji, “Nigeria; Pains, Gains and Challenges of Certification,” All Africa, March 29, 2001; Frank A. Aukofer and Dave Daley, “Heroin Buys Here Help Bust Ring,” Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, October 12, 1996, p. 1.
73 [Chicago wholesale and distribution case] National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Heroin Distribution in Three Cities, November2000.
73 [Transformation of the trade] Matthew Brzezinski, “Re-engineering the Drug Business,” New York Times Magazine, June 23, 2002.
Demystifying the Game
74 [Escobar, rise of the cartels] Colombia: Robin Kirk, More Terrible than Death: Massacres, Drugs and America’s War in Colombia (New York: Public Affairs, 2003).
75 [Mexican drug business] Jorge Luis Sierra Guzman, “Mexico’s Military in the War on Drugs,” WOLA Drug War Monitor, April 2003.
75–76 [Mexican collaboration with other non-Mex trafficking networks] [Russians] Susana Hayward, “Russian Mafia Helping Mexican Cartels Smuggle Drugs into U.S. Officials Say,” Knight Ridder news service, August 6, 2003; [FARC] Eric Rosenberg, “Colombia Effort Raises Fears of Another Vietnam,” San Antonio Express-News, January 15, 2001, p. 1A.
76 [Juarez group; twenty-six regional manager “bankers”] Library of Congress Federal Research Division, “Organized Crime and Terrorist Activity in Mexico, 1999–2002,” Washington, DC, 2003, p. 8.
76 [Mexican organizations] “Drugs in Mexico: War without End,” The Economist, March 4, 2004.