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誰劫走了全球經濟(BE0140)
Illicit

類別: 史地‧法律‧政治>其他
叢書系列:NEXT
作者:摩伊希斯‧奈姆
       Moises Naim
譯者:吳國卿
出版社:時報文化
出版日期:2006年09月18日
定價:320 元
售價:253 元(約79折)
開本:25開/平裝/304頁
ISBN:9571345377

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  ILLICIT-4

ILLICIT

Launder, Barter, Hack

77 [Annual drug seizures] United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Global Illegal Drug Trends 2003.

77 [Ease of dissimulation in volume of global trade] Kris Axtman, “Rising Border Traffic, More Drugs,” Christian Science Monitor, May 8, 2001, p. 1; Stephen E. Flynn, “The Global Drug Trade versus the Nation-State: Why the Thugs Are Winning,” in Maryann Cusimano, ed., Beyond Sovereignty: Issues for a Global Agenda (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002), pp. 44–66; Kal Raustiala, “Law, Liberalization, and International Narcotics Trafficking,” New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 32, no. 1 (fall 1999): pp. 89–145, especially “Drugs and Liberalization,” pp. 114–30.

77–78 [New technologies] United Nations, International Narcotics Control Board, Globalization and New Technologies: Challenges To Drug Law Enforcement in the Twenty-First Century, 2001, E/INCB/2001/1; “High Technology Boosts Dutch Marijuana Trade,” Financial Times, August 23, 2001.

78 [early adoption of encryption techniques by Cali cartel] Author interview with Cesar Gaviria, president of Colombia, 1990–94; New York, March 2005.

78–79 [Black market peso exchange] Oriana Zill and Lowell Bergman, “The Black Peso Money Laundering System,” at PBS Frontline website, “Drug Wars.” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/special/blackpeso.html

79 [Description of “Russian weapons and other equipment” for drugs] Jerry Seper, “Mexicans, Russian Mob New Partners in Crime,” Washington Times, May 28, 2001, p. A1.

79 [IRA/Dublin drug supply and FARC links] Jim Cusak, “IRA Unit in Bogota as Part of ‘Technology Exchange,’ ” Irish Times, August 15, 2001, p. 7.

Stuck in Source Control

80 [U.S. overseas drug operations] Mark Bowden, “Witness: Plan Colombia,” Prospect, July 2001, pp. 38–44; “Latin American Poppy Fields Undermine U.S. Drug Battle,” New York Times, June 8, 2003, p. A1; Ted Galen Carpenter, Bad Neighbor Policy: Washington’s Futile War on Drugs in Latin America (New York: Palgrave, 2003); William M. LeoGrande and Kenneth Sharpe, “A Plan, But No Clear Objective,” Washington Post, April 1, 2001, p. B2.

80 [Stubbornness of source control policy] Peter Reuter, “Supply-Side Drug Control,” Milken Institute Review, first quarter 2001, pp. 15–23.

80 [U.S. certification system] Peter Reuter, “A Certifiable Drug Policy ...” Washington Post, August 23, 2000, p. A25.

80–82 [Certification] Author interview with former DEA official. Miami, FL, March 5, 2004.

81 [U.S. seizures and strange hiding places] For example, see: U.S. Customs and Border Protection press release, “CBP Inspectors Find Heroin in Teddy Bear,” CBP.gov, September 12, 2003; Kris Axtman, “Rising Border Traffic, More Drugs,” Christian Science Monitor, May 8, 2001, p. 1.

81 [Increase in marijuana users seeking treatment] The White House, National Drug Control Strategy, February 2005; “More Seek Treatment for Marijuana,” New York Times, March 4, 2005.

Colliding with Politics

82–83 [Bolivia] “Bolivian President Has Corrupt Congress, No Political Backing, but Nation’s Respect,” Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service, February 10, 2004; Larry Rother, “Bolivian Leader’s Ouster Seen as Warning on U.S. Drug Policy,” New York Times, October 23, 2003; “Throwing Down the Gauntlet; Turmoil in Bolivia,” The Economist, March 12, 2005, p. 61; “A President under Siege; Bolivia,” The Economist, March 19, 2005, p. 64.

83 [Quotes from former Bolivian president Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada] Author interview with Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada, Washington, DC, July 20, 2004.

84 [Mayor of Guzman’s hometown] James C. McKinley Jr., “Drug Lord, Ruthless and Elusive, Reaches High in Mexico,” New York Times, February 9, 2005, p. A3.

84–85 [North Korea state involvement in drug trafficking] John Hill, “Korean Diplomats Face Drugs Trafficking Charge,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, January 2005, p. 6; Jonathan Mann and Mike Chinoy, “Drugs and Nuclear Weapons in North Korea,” Insight, CNN, September 29, 2004. Also: U.S. Department of State, Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, “2003 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report,” March 1, 2004.

CHAPTER 5: WHY IS SLAVERY BOOMING IN THE 21st CENTURY?

86–87 [Golden Venture] Greg Torode, “Hong Kong Probe into Death Ship: Survivors Held as U.S. Vows to Stem Flood,” South China Morning Post, June 8, 1993, p. 1; Sarah Jackson-Han, “Chinese Aliens Sparked Long-Term Immigration Crackdown,” Agence France-Presse, June 7, 1996.

86–87 [Fujian circuit] Zai Liang and Wenzhen Ye, “From Fujian To New York: Understanding the New Chinese Immigration,” chapter 7, in David Kyle and Rey Koslowski, Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001); Ko-Lin Chin, “The Social Organization of Chinese Human Smuggling,” chapter 8, in Kyle and Koslowski, Global Human Smuggling; Michael Maiello and Susan Kitchens, “Preying on Human Cargo,” Forbes.com, June 7, 2004.

87 [$60,000 price for one person smuggled from China to the United States] Author interview with Doris Meissner, U.S. commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1993–2000; Washington, DC, February 2002, published in Foreign Policy, March–April 2003, p. 31.

87–88 [Tourab Ahmed Sheik/Mandir Kumar Wahi] “Le prince des trafiquants d’etres humains enfin dans le box,” Courrier International, November 6, 2003, p. 9; David Finkel, “Dreams Dashed on the Rocks,” Washington Post, June 10, 2001, p. A1.

Mass Movements

88 [Size and scope of global trafficking and smuggling trade] David Kyle and Rey Koslowski, introduction, in Kyle and Koslowski, eds., Global Human Smuggling, pp. 3–4; International Organization for Migration, “New IOM Figures on the Global Scale of Trafficking,” Trafficking in Migrants Quarterly Bulletin, no. 23, April 2001, and online at www.iom.int; Frank Laczko, “Human Trafficking: The Need for Better Data,” Migration Information Source, Migration Policy Institute, November 1, 2002; Barbara Crossette, “UN Warns That Trafficking in Human Beings Is Growing,” New York Times, June 25, 2000; UN Population Fund, UN Information Service, United Nations, State of the World’s Cities, 2004/2005: Globalization and Urban Culture. UN-HABITAT (London, 2004). Also David Feingold, “Think Again: Human Trafficking,” Foreign Policy, forthcoming, 2005.

88 [FBI estimates of Mexican people smuggling] Oscar Becerra, “Mexican People Smuggling Trade Worth Billions,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, December 2004, p. 30.

89 [Reasons for migration] “On the Move,” The Economist, May 12, 2001; Kirstin Downey Grimsley, “Global Migration Trends Reflect Economic Options,” Washington Post, January 3, 2002; “Immigration into Germany: More Needed, Fewer Wanted,” The Economist, June 23, 2001; “Knocking at the Rich Man’s Door,” Financial Times, May 25, 2002; Alan Cowell, “Migrants Feel Chill in a Testy Europe,” New York Times, April 28, 2002, p. A14.

89 [Global migration numbers, countries receiving remittances] “Humanity on the Move: The Myths and Realities of International Migration,” Financial Times, July 30, 2003, p. 11.

91 [Guest worker idea in the United States] On guest-worker program: Max Blumenthal, “Immigration Conflagration,” American Prospect, April 2004, p. 14.

91 [Bales, modern-day slavery] Kevin Bales, Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1999).

The Height of Degradation

92 [East Europe to West Europe sex trafficking, Operation Sunflower] Christopher Sulavik, “Facing Down Traffickers: Europe Takes on Its Fastest-Growing Criminal Enterprise,” Newsweek, August 25, 2003; “Preying on Children,” Newsweek, November 17, 2003; “Balkan Traffic in Women and Girls ‘On Rise,’ ” Financial Times, December 18, 2003; see also “Trafficking of People in Kosovo,” Immigration and Nationality Directorate, UK Home Office, June 25, 2004.

92 [Politicians as accomplices of people-trafficking criminals in the Balkans] Eric Jannson, “Report: Balkan Traffic in Women and Girls ‘On the Rise,’ ” Financial Times, December 18, 2003.

92–93 [Sale of babies/children] “Baby Trade,” The Economist, February 7, 2004; Nicholas Wood, “For Albanians, It’s Come To This: A Son for a TV,” New York Times, November 13, 2003.

93 [Sex slaves in Florida] “16 Indicted in Mexican Prostitution Ring,” United Press International, April 23, 1998.

93 [“A 1999 report . . . ”] Amy O’Neill Richard, “International Trafficking in Women To the United States: A Contemporary Manifestation of Slavery and Organized Crime,” Center for the Study of Intelligence, November 1999.

93 [Sex trafficking in the United States] Peter Landesman, “The Girls Next Door” New York Times Magazine, January 25, 2004; Wilson Ring, “Experts: VT Sex Slavery Fits U.S. Pattern,” Associated Press, July 23, 2004.