l Street gangs: “4 Presidents Seek Help in Gang Battle,” by Chris Kraul, Robert Lopez and Rich Connell, Los Angeles Times, April 2, 2005, Part A, p. 3.
l Teen terrorists: “Europe’s Boys of Jihad,” by Sebastian Rotella, Los Angeles Times, April 2, 2005, Part A, p. 1.
lPrince Harry: “Jewish Groups, British Lawmakers Criticize Prince Harry’s Nazi Costume,” by Robert Barr, Associated Press, January 13, 2005.
lPillow mobs: “When Feathers Fly,” by Liat Collins, Jerusalem Post, March 18, 2005, p. 44.
lVirtual assets: “The Virtual Market,” by L.A. Lorek, San Antonio Express-News, April 5, 2005, p. E1.
l Trade deficit: “Fed Fears Inflation, But Still ‘Measured’,” by Christina Wise, Investor’s Business Daily, April 13, 2005, p. A1.
l German unemployment: “France and Germany Dogged by Joblessness,” by Mark Landler, New York Times, April 1, 2005, Section C, p. 4.
l White collar/blue collar: “Employed Persons, by Major Occupation Group and Sex: Annual Averages, 1947-1962,” a study by the U.S. Department of Labor included as Table A-7 in the “Manpower Report of the President,” transmitted to the U.S. Congress in March, 1963.
l Computers to civilian sector: “Computers: History and Development," Jones Telecommunications & Multimedia Encyclopedia, from its website @ www.digitalcentury.com/encyclo/update/comp_hd.html
l Knowledge study: Machlup, Fritz, The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1962) pp. 394-397.
l Stratocaster: "50 Years of Perfection: Design and History of Electric Guitars," by Tom Wheeler, Guitar Player, January 1, 2004, p. 54.
l NOW: "1966 Statement of Purpose" of the National Organization for Women, from the group's website @ www.now.org/purpose66.html
l ARPANET: “E-Mail Delivers,” by Monty Phan, Newsday, October 17, 2001, p. C8.
l Independent contractors: “Working, But Not ‘Employed’,” by Robert Reich, New York Times, January 9, 2001.
l Wilchins: “Spotlighting Issues of Gender, From Pronouns to Murder,” by Carey Goldberg, New York Times, June 11, 1999, Section B, p.2.
l Total number of PCs: Computer Industry Almanac. “PCs In-Use Surpassed 820M in 2004,” from its website @ www.c-I-a.com/pr0305.htm
l Chips and transistors: Doug Andrey, principal analyst for the Semiconductor Industry Association, in correspondence to the authors, April 7, 2005.
l HP’s switches: “Hewlett Takes A Step Forward In The World Of Tiny Chips,” by John Markoff, New York Times, September 10, 2002, Section C, p.1.
l Earth Simulator: “On Top When It Comes To The Crunch,” by Michiyo Nakamoto, Financial Times, September 16, 2002. Also, “Top 500 List" (of fastest computers), University of Mannheim and University of Tennessee, from the website @ www.top500.org/list/2002/11/
l Petaflops: “IBM Plans A Computer That Will Set Power Record,” by John Markoff, New York Times, November 19, 2002, Section C, p. 10.
l Worldwide Internet users, Brazil users: "Internet Usage Statistics - The Big Picture," Internet World Stats, December 31, 2005, www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Also, "Internet Indicators," International Telecommunication Union, 2004, www.itu.intJITUD/ictlstatistics/atglance/InternetO4.pdf.
l Chinese on the : “Watch the Chinese Change Faster Than Others,” by T.K. Chang, quoting Nicholas Negroponte in the International Herald Tribune, June 21, 2000.
l Korean Internet cafes: “Starcraft Game Captures South Korea’s Recession-Hit Youth,” by Ahn Mi-young of Deutsche Presse-Agentur, April 20, 1999. Also, “Korea’s PC ‘Bangs’ Are The New Place To Socialize,” by Michael Baker, Christian Science Monitor, May 3, 2000, p. 9.
l Software exporters: “Costa Rica Brews a New Blend of Java,” by Peter Bate of the Inter-American Development Bank, 1999, from the IADB website @ www.iadb.org/idbamerica/Archive/stories/1999/eng/e1099fl.htm Also, “Mr. Freeze: Iceland Moves Out Into The Light As Its New President Goes High Tech,” by Alex Grove in Red Herring, August, 1997. Also, “The Next India? Egypt’s Software Dream,” by the International Telecommunication Union, December, 2000, from its website @ www.itu.int/ITU-D/cs/letters/egypt.html
l Vietnam exports: “Software Mission to Japan,” Vietnam Investment Review, September 23, 2002.
l IT firms in Recife: "Reinventing Recife as Tech Harbor," by Paulo Rebelo, Wired, January 18, 2002, from its website @ www.wired.com/news/print/0,1294,49649,00.html
l High-tech in Africa:.“CTs in Africa: a Status Report,” by the United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force, cited in the Inter Press Service article “Internet Use Growing, But Still Lags In Africa,” by Thalif Deen, Sept. 30, 2002.
l IT spending: “Digital Planet 2004: The Global Information Economy,” World Information Technology and Services Alliance citing research by Global Insight, from the WITSA website @ www.witsa.org/digitalplanet/
l IT companies: “A Growing Technology Ecosystem,” Microsoft Corp., April 23, 2002, from its website @ www.microsoft.com/issues/essays/2002/04-23ecosystem.asp
l Dark matter: “It’s Dark Out There,” by Hazel Muir, New Scientist, June 1, 2002, p. 14.
l Anti-hydrogen: “European Scientists Produce – And Measure – Atoms of Antihydrogen,” by Naomi Koppel, Associated Press, October 29, 2002. Also, “Antihydrogen Rivals Enter The Stretch,” Science, November 15, 2002, p. 1327.
l Roche ad: Science, September 6, 2002.
l AB Applied Biosystems ad: Science, September 6, 2002.
l Laser speeds: “Strobe Light Breaks the Attosecond Barrier,” by Robert F. Service, Science, June 1, 2001, p. 1627.
l Lasetron: “Lasetron to Produce Zeptosecond Flashes,” by Philip Ball, Nature, February 5, 2002.
l Time travel: “When Traveling Through Time, Pack Information,” by Tom Siegfried, Dallas Morning News, September 17, 2001, p. 2C.
l Cyborgs: “The Bionic Man,” by William Underhill, Newsweek, October 7, 2002, p. 61.
l Near-immortality: “As Life Spans Stretch, New Thoughts Arise on Age-old Issues of Aging,” by John Fauber, Milwaukee Journal, April 16, 2002, p. 1G.
l Anti-gravity devices: The Melbourne Age, reviewing the book “The Hunt for Zero Point,” by Nick Cook (New York: Broadway, 2002), on October 8, 2002, p.5.
l American humbug: "No Free Lunch," Investors Chronicle, March 22, 2002, p. 122.
The Child of Desire
l of possibilities: “La,” by Gabriel Zaid, Reforma, April 25, 1999, p. A26.
l Deng: “To Get Rich Is Glorious,” by Tim Healy and David Hsieh, Asia Week, March 7, 1997. Also, “The Economy’s Long March,” by Steve Schifferes, British Broadcasting Corp., September 29, 1999, from its website @ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/specialreport1999/09/china
l U.S. ad spending: “Crowned at Last,” The Economist, April 2, 2005, p. 4.
Waves of Wealth
l Overweight/undernourished people: “It’s a Fat, Fat, Fat World,” CBS News, citing the findings of a World Health Organization task force, May 15, 2002, from its website @ www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/05/health/main509230.shtml Also, “The State of Food Insecurity in the World: 2002,” Food and Agriculture Organization, from its website @ http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/005/y7352e/y7352e00.htm
l Agricultural beginnings: “Einkorn’s Debut,” by Mark Rose, Archaeology, January/February, 1998. Also, “Location, Location, Location: The First Farmers,” by Jared Diamond, Science, November 14, 1997, p. 1243.
l Peasant prosperity zone: “The Expansion of Technology 500-1500,” by Lynn White in The Fontana Economic History of Europe (London, 1972), cited in Before The Industrial Revolution, European Society and Economy, 1000-1700, by Carlo M. Cipolla (New York: W.W. Norton, 1994), p. 138.
l Frequency of famines: “Medieval Europe: Crisis and Renewal,” by Teofilo F. Ruiz, a taped lecture series from The Teaching Company (Chantilly, Vir., 1997) Lecture 5: Hunger.
l Famine and daily life, satirical play: Camporesi, Piero, Bread of Dreams, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), pp. 38, 47, 56.
l OECD member population: “World Development Indicators Database,” World Bank, August, 2002, from the bank’s website @ http://www.worldbank.org/data/databytopic/POP.pdf
l GM chief economist: “Economists See Better Times Coming In ’03,” by John Gallagher, Detroit Free Press, November 22, 2002.
l Time Warner Telecom chairman: “Time Warner Telecom Announces Third Quarter 2002 Results,” PR Newswire, October 30, 2002.
l stock decline: “Historical Prices for Time Warner Telecom (TWTC),” Yahoo Finance, December 11, 2002, From its website @ http:table.finance.yahoo.com/d?a=9&b=30&c=2001&d=9&e=30&f=2002&g=w&s=twtc
l Credit Suisse First Boston economist: “Russia Says It Can Service Foreign Debt,” by Robert Cottrell and Arkady Ostrovsky, Financial Times, February 21, 2002, p. 30.
l Chinese export market: “China Predicts 7% Year 2000 Growth, Deflation to End,” by William J. McMahon, China Online News, January 5, 2000.
l Moulton: “A Clearer View of the Economy; The Commerce Department Answers Its Critics,” by Louis Uchitelle, New York Times, October 29, 1999, Section C, p. 1.
l Central banks: “Credibility Test,” by Mervyn King, Financial Times, August 30, 1999. p. 12.
l Litigation consultant: “Experts and Consultants,” HGExperts.com, from the company’s website @ www.hgexperts.com/listing/Experts-Failure-Analysis.asp
l Post-harvest horticulturalists: “Horticultural Crops,” by Fu Wen Liu, from the Food and Fertilizer Technology Center website @ www.agnet.org/library/article/eb465b.html
l Productive powers: Smith, Adam, The Wealth of Nations (New York: The Modern Library, 1965), p. 3.
The Clash of Speeds
l Law of Congruence: Heidi Toffler has suggested that if the dominant form of organization in the public sector is sufficiently incongruent with that in the private sector, the incompatibility will create inefficiencies in both.
l Taylorism: The application of supposedly “scientific” methods to achieve maximum worker efficiency, often criticized for subjecting workers to inhuman speed-up and turning them into adjuncts of the machine. Named after Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915). Sometimes called “Fordism” after Henry Ford. The One Best Way by Robert Kanigel (New York: Viking Press, 1997) p. 7.
l family: “America’s Families and Living Arrangements,” U.S. Census Bureau, June, 2001, p. 2.
l Union membership in 1955: 2001 World Almanac (Mahwah, NJ: World Almanac Books, 2001) p. 171.
lUnion membership today: “Union Members in 2004,” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, from its website @ www.bls.gov/news.release/union2.nr0.htm
lunways: “Airport Runway Construction Challenges,” U.S. House Subcommittee on Aviation, for its hearing May 24, 2001, from its website @ www.house.gov/transportation/aviation/05-24-01/05-24-01memo.html
l Highway projects: “Increasing Program Delivery Costs,” American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 2002, from its website @ http://transportation.org/bottomline/highways07.html
l ducation costs: “Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 1999-2000,” National Center for Education Statistics, from its website @ www.nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/quarterly/summer/3-7.asp
l Summers: “U.S. Will Endorse European Nominee to Lead the I.M.F.,” by David E. Sanger and Joseph Kahn, New York Times, March, 14, 2000, Section A, p. 1.
l The file-sharing software and technology that led to a crisis in the music industry stemmed from technology developed in the late 1980s. In 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that companies whose products promote illicit file-swapping can be sued, leading the New York Times to conclude that each new court victory by the industry “arrives years behind the next digital innovation.” “The Imps of File Sharing May Lose in Court, But They Are Winning in the Marketplace,” by Tom Zeller, Jr., New York Times, July 4, 2005, p. C3.
l Time collision: “A Megadeal in PC-Land Now?” by Robert X. Cringely, New York Times, November 24, 1998.
l Social Security benefits: “Clinton Signs Law That Removes Social Security Earnings Penalty,” by Kathleen Pender, San Francisco Chronicle, April 8, 2000, p. A1. Also, “Social Security Earnings Limit Removed,” by Thomas Burke, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Compensation and Working Conditions, Vol. 5, No. 2, Summer, 2000.
l Headline: “Flash! The Great Depression is Over,” by Steve Forbes, Forbes, April 3, 2000, p. 39.
lOrigins of telecom law: “Regulators’ New Role in Competitive Utilities,” by Kriss Sjoblom and Richard S. Davis, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 29, 1997, p. A11.
l Glass-Steagall: “Year in Review: Looking for Someone or Something to Blame,” by Dean Anason, Matthias Rieker, Rob Blackwell, Rob Garver, Barbara Rehm and Jennifer Kingson, American Banker, December 5, 2002, p. 19A. Also, “Bear Tracks,” by Tom Walker, Atlanta Journal and Constitution, November 17, 2002, p. 1G.
l Stock and securities law: “Securities Law: An Overview,” Cornell University Legal Information Institute, from its website @ www.law.cornell.edu/topics/securities/html
l Mutual funds: Table: “Total Industry Net Assets, Number of Funds, and Shareholder Accounts,” Investment Company Institute, 2003, from its website @ www.ici.org/pdf/02fb_datasec1.pdf
l 00 Original fund law, difference in asset value: “The Forties,” Investment Company Institute, 2003, from its website @ www.ici.org/60year/1940s.html, Mutual funds in 1940 are obtained from the ICI table of industry assets and funds.
The Synchronization Industry
l Ancient synchrony: McNeill, William H., Keeping Together in Time, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995) pp. 27, 30.
l Entrainment: McGrath, Joseph E. and Kelly, Janice R., Time and Human Interaction, (New York: The Guilford Press, 1986), pp. 44-45.
l Neurons: "Listening In on the Brain," Science, Vol. 280. April 17, 1998, p. 376.
l “Balanced Growth” economists: Kornai, Janos, Rush Versus Harmonic Growth, (Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co., 1972) pp. 56-57.
l Schumpeter: “Feeding the Flames: What Every Manager Needs to Know About Creative Destruction,” by Russ Mitchell, Business 2.0, May, 2001.
l Japanese management: Monden,
l MRP and JIT manufacturing: Giffi, pp. 138, 215, 228-229.
l JIT and Toyota: Giffi, et al., Competing in World-Class Manufacturing, pp. 136-137. The authors’ conclusions are drawn in part from research by Michael A. Cusumano in his work “Manufacturing Innovations: Lessons From the Japanese Auto Industry,” Sloan Management Review 30, Fall, 1988, pp. 29-39.
l Consistently effective: Giffi, et al, Competing in World-Class Manufacturing, pp. 137-138, referring to a study by Roger W. Schmenner as found in “The Merit of Making Things Fast,” Sloan Management Review 30, Fall, 1998, pp. 11-17.
l Hammer 150-153.
l : “Baan Looks to Climb Out of Trough,” by Joris Evers, InfoWorld Daily News, December 2, 2002. Also, “Enterprise Resource Planning,” Bearing Point, 2003, from its website @ www.kpmgconsulting.com/solutions/enterprise_solutions/erp_s`olutions.html
l Supply chain performance: “Synchronized Supply Chains: The New Frontier,” by David Anderson and Hau Lee, Achieving Supply Chain Excellence Through Technology, April 15, 1999, published by Montgomery Research, Inc., from the ASCET website @ www.ascet.com/documents/asp?dID=198
l Recycled autos: “Industry Faces Heavy Costs for Recycling,” by Vanessa Houlder, Financial Times, May 27, 2003. p. 11.
l Recycled ink cartridges: “Refillers Sue Lexmark Over Ink Cartridge Recycling Plan,” by Joe Ward, Louisville Courier-Journal, September 7, 2001, p. 1C.
The Arrythmic Economy
l AOL-Time Warner: “Who’s Afraid of AOL Time Warner?” The Economist, January 26, 2002.
l Siemens CEO: “Race to renew a corporate culture,” by Christopher Parkes, Financial Times, November 11, 1994.
l Siemens sold Nixdorf five years later to Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. www.kkr.com/press/10_22_99.html
l : Interview with the authors in Los Angeles, 2001.
l costs: “Annual Value of Construction Put in Place in the United States 1993-2004,” U.S. Census Bureau, from its website @ www.census.gov/const/www/c30index.html
l Typical cost of low-income unit: “Public Housing Project Detailed,” by Nathan Gorenstein, Philadelphia Inquirer, November 10, 2001, p. B1.
l Firms decline to bid: “U.S. Congress Asserts Oversight,” by Gopal Ratnam, Defense News, November 25, 2002, p.1.
l Contractors and regulations: “DoD Criticized for Relying on One-bid Contracts,” by Katy Saldarini, Government Executive, March, 2000, from its website @ www.184.108.40.206/dailyfed/0300/032200k1.htm
l Defense time conflicts: Margiotta, Franklin D.; Sanders, Ralph. Technology, Strategy and National Security. (Washington DC: National Defense University Press, 1985) p. 50.
l Unregulated computer industry: “FCC Gets A Clear Signal,” an editorial in the Orange County Register, December 1, 1999, P. B10. Also, the “The Emergence of a Networked World,” Global Internet Project, from its website @ www.gip.org/publications/papers/gip2h.asp
l Telecom regulation, impact on development: "The Cost of Telecommunications Regulation," National Center for Policy Analysis, November 19, 2002, citing Robert W. Campbell of the Brookings Institute in "A Somewhat Better Connection," from Regulation, Summer, 2002, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 22-28, from the NCPA website @ www.ncpa.org/iss/reg/2002/pd111902d.html Also, “FCC Gets A Clear Signal,” Orange County Register, citing National Economic Research Associates, December 1, 1999, P. B10.
l Naito and ATMs, early bank closings: “Banks Focus on Retail Services, Keep Cash Machines Open Later,” by Masato Ishizawa, Nikkei Weekly, October 20, 1997, p. 1.
l Japanese ATMs, 24-hour service: “Making News In Japan With 24-Hour ATMs,” by Andrew Raskin, Bank Technology News International, January, 1998.
lUFJ: “UFJ to Introduce 24-Hour ATMs,” Nikkei Weekly, August 25, 2003.
The New Timescape
l Airline flight: “Critically Ill Passengers on Two Flights Saved by Airline’s Pioneering Efforts,” by John Crewdson of the Chicago Tribune, published in the Buffalo News, November 22, 1998, p. 18A.
l : Le Goff, p. 51.
l Labor productivity measurement: “Productivity and Costs: People Are Asking...” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, from its website @ www.bls.gov/lpc/peoplebox.htm
l New vocabulary: (Twitch Speed): “Today’s Free Agents Work at Twitch Speed: A Buzzword Glossary,” by Hal Lancaster, Wall Street Journal, October 7, 1998. p. B1. “Hurry Sickness Can Be Cured,” by Philip Chard, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, November 26, 2002, p. 1F. (Time Deepening and Time Famine): “Old Father Time Becomes a Terror,” by Richard Tomkins, Financial Times, March 20-21, 1999. (Internet Time): “A Quicker Pace Means No Peace in the Valley,” by John Markoff, New York Times, quoting Andy Grove of Intel. June 3, 1996, p. C1. (Digital Time): “Are You on Digital Time?” by Alan M. Webber, Fast Company, February, 1999, p. 114.
l Rushaholics: “Curse of the Rushaholics,” by Anastasia Stephens, London Evening Standard, April 30, 2002, p. 23.
l “Medication and Therapy Help Hyperactive Children,” by Dr. Hank Clever, St. Louis Post Dispatch, April 22, 2002, p. 9.
l Young multi-taskers: “Understanding Digital Kids,” by Ian Jukes and Anita Dosai, InfoSavvy Group, June, 2004, from the consulting firm's website @ www.thecommittedsardine.net/infosavvy/education/handouts/it.pdf
l SpeedDating: “Minute Mates,” by Linda Wertheimer, Dallas Morning News, December 8, 2000, p. 1C. Also the SpeedDating website @ www.aish.com/speeddating/
l Page-load impatience: “Site Unseen: The Brand Suffers – The Cost of Downtime,” by Tim Wilson, Internet Week, citing a report by Zona Research, August 2, 1999.
l TV visuals: “Hollywood Disinformation,” by Joseph D. Duffy, New Perspectives Quarterly, Fall, 1998, p. 14.
l NextCard: “The Information Gold Mine,” by Heather Green, Business Week, July 26, 1999.
l Milliseconds: “EBS Live Speeds Up Data System,” by Jennifer Hughes, Financial Times, February 2, 2004, p. 28.
l workers: Pinkpp. 34-35. Also, interview with Pink on July 4, 2000.
l Free-time periods: “Transforming the Future: Rethinking Time for the New Millennium,” by Bill Martin and Sandra Mason, Foresight, February, 1999, p. 51.
l Short-form TV: Interview with the authors in Los Angeles, January 29, 2000.
l Friends and SNL: “Must-win TV Comes to Thursdays,” by Lauren Hunter, Cable News Network, February 7, 2001, on its website @ www.cnn.com/2001/SHOWBIZ/TV/0207/friends.survivor. The Friends and Saturday Night Live episodes first aired following the Superbowl on January 28, 2001.
l One-minute movies: “NBC is Hoping Short Movies Keep Viewers From Zapping,” by Bill Carter, New York Times, August 4, 2003, Section C, p. 1.
l : “Investors May Have Repudiated the Internet, but Consumers Have Not,” by Amy Harmon and Felicity Barringer, New York Times, July 22, 2002, Section C, p. 2.
l : “The News Business: Stop Press,” The Economist, July 4, 1998, p. 17.
l Family rituals:. “Rethinking the Rat Race,” by Diane Brady, Business Week, August 26, 2002.
O: “Podcasting: The New Broadcasting Model,” by John Jerney, Daily Yomiuri, December 14, 2004, p. 13.
l “Americanization” of Europe: Future Shock (New York: Random House, 1970)
l : “Berlin Journal: Skirmish in the Store Wars – The Souvenir Caper,” by Roger Cohen, New York Times, August 6, 1999, Section A, p. 4.
l Japan's late-night stores and sales: “Night and Day” and "Trend to Longer Hours Certain to Continue," by Nami M. Abe, Nikkei Weekly, September 30, 2002. pp. 2,3.
l Conectiva and others: “ICT in Curitiba,” ITC Parana, from its website @ www.investict.com/br/englishversion/englishversion/ccmodelo/textog.htm Also, “Conectiva, Inc.,” from the Intel website @ www.intel.com/capital/portfolio/companies/conectiva.htm
l Curitiba: “Reclaiming Cities for the Next Few Centuries,” by Hardev Kaur, New Straits Times Management Times, December 27, 2002.
l 24-hour street: “Brazil’s Clean & Green City,” by Allen Chesney, Chattanooga Free Press, September 13, 1998, p. K1.
lSweden extends hours: “Stock Exchanges: Open All Night,” by Dean Foust, Business Week, June 14, 1999.
l Temporary store: “A Store Made For Right Now: You Shop Until It’s Dropped,” by Cathy Horyn, New York Times, February 17, 2004, Section A, p. 1.
The Great Circle
l technology in 1500: “The Historical Significance of China’s Entry to the WTO,” by Jeffrey D. Sachs, 2000, from the Project Syndicate website @ www.project-syndicate.org/article_print_text?mid=299&lang=1
l Asia’s output in 1500, later decline: Maddison, Angus, The World Economy (Paris: OECD, 2001) p. 142. Maddison notes that, despite huge increases in Asia’s population, its share of world output slowly declined to less than 20 percent in 1950.
lZheng He: Levathes,
lLuce: “Luce’s Values – Then and Now,” by Walter Isaacson, Time, March 9, 1998, p. 195. Also, “Another ‘American Century’?” by William Pfaff, International Herald Tribune, January 3, 2000, p. 8.
l The macro shift of world wealth westward toward Asia in the past half century was paralleled inside the U.S. In 1950 nine out of the ten biggest American cities were concentrated on the East Coast and in the Midwest. By 2004, only three remained among the top ten. Fully seven were now found west of Texas. Detroit, symbol of mass production of tangible goods had dropped off the list and been replaced by San Jose, California, the urban area adjacent to Silicon Valley, the symbol of intangible output. “Top Ten Cities,” maps in New York Times, June 30, 2005, Section A, p. 19.
lFDI: “New Wave of Foreign Investors Needed,” by Cary Huang, South China Morning Post, March 22, 2005, p. 7.
lMiraculous torrent: "China’s Foreign Investment Set For Record High in 2002," Xinhua News Agency, July 17, 2002.
lFDI in 2003: “China Tops U.S. in Investment Table,” British Broadcasting Corp., June 28, 2004, from its website @ http://news/bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3846439/stm
lFDI in 2005: “U.S. to Remain Top Investment Destination for Foreign Firms,” by Andrew C. Schneider, Kiplinger Business Forecasts, March 3, 2005.
lU.S. investments in China: “China’s Economic Conditions,” by Wayne M. Morrison of the Congressional Research Office, January 24, 2005, p. 5.
lImports from China: “Foreign Trade Statistics – Trade with China: 2003,” U.S. Census Bureau, from its website @ www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c5700.html
lChina’s exports: “Rank Order – Exports,” World Factbook, from its website @ www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/rankorder/2078rank.html
l GDPs of China, Asia, Europe: “Field Listing – GDP,” World Factbook, from its website @ www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/2001.html
l World of 2050: "Asia," by Robert Manning, 2000, on the Council on Foreign Relations website @ www.foreignpolicy2000.org/library/issuebriefs/IBAsia.html
Higher Value-Added Places
l Placelessness. Examples of these characterizations can be found in “Life Beyond Modems,” by James Coates and Jon Van, Chicago Tribune, March 17, 1997, p. C1. Also, “Embedding the Internet,” by Deborah Estrin, Ramesh Govindan and John Heidemann in Communications of the Association for Computer Machinery, May 1, 2000, p. 38.
lPoorest city: “Beneath Cleveland’s Bright Facade, America’s Poorest City,” by Milan Simonich, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, September 26, 2004, p. A1.
lGuangdong a decade ago, Pearl River Delta: “World Watch: Asia – Poised for Growth,” by Mark Graham, Industryweek.com, October 16, 2000, from its website @ www.industryweek.com/CurrentArticles/asp/articles.asp?ArticleID=918
l Millions to Guangdong: “China’s Young, Restless Seeking Future,” by Jennifer Lin, Knight-Ridder Newspapers, in an article in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, September 26, 1999, p. A17.
l : “Completing the Jigsaw,” by Duncan Hughes, South China Morning Post, October 29, 1994, p. 23.
lGuangdong GDP: “FDI in China and Regional Development From Institutional Reforms to Agglomeration Economies Perspective,” a paper by Chyau Tuan and F.Y. Ng for the First International Conference on Nation States and Economic Policy: Conflict and Cooperation, organized by the Japan Economic Association, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 2002, from the Academic Society HomeVillage of Japan website @ wwwsoc.nii.ac.jp/jepa/abst/10.pdf
lHigh-tech sector: “On Changes of Economic Position of Coastal Prosperous Provinces,” by Ma Chunhui, China Development Institute, June 30, 2003, from its website @ www.cdi.com.cn/publication/pdf/cdireview_200302_machh.pdf
lRegion-states: Ohmae, Kenichi, End of the Nation State: The Rise of Regional Economies (New York: Free Press, 1995). Also, "Putting Global Logic First,” by Kenichi Ohmae, Harvard Business Review, January-February, 1995, p. 120.
lDalian: Ohmae, [ p. 8.
l Cross-borders in Eastern Europe: “Territoriality of Topocratic Cross-Border Networks,” by Jussi S. Jauhaininen, from the University of Tartu (Estonia) website @ www.ut.ee/SOPL/english/border/jj.htm
lTumen River: “Tumen River Project Hopes to Gain Japan’s Participation,” Associated Press, April 6, 2001.
lPacific powerhouse: “A Lateral Piece of Logic,” by Tyler Brule, Financial Times, October 30, 2004, p. 22.
l Mexico signs NAFTA: “Mexico’s China Obsession,” by Scott Johnson, Newsweek, November 4, 2002, p. 48.
lBorder plants, jobs: “First Decline Seen for Border Factories,” by Chris Kraul, Chicago Tribune, October 9, 2001, Business section, p. 2.
lMexico’s lost jobs: “Free Trade’s Faded Dream,” by Susan Ferriss of Cox News Service, published in the Edmonton Journal, November 23, 2003, p. D4.
l Bustamente: “The China Challenge,” by Dean Calbreath and Diane Lindquist, Copley News Service, September 2, 2002.
l Indiana ad, old factors: “The New State Economy Index,” by Robert D. Atkinson with assistance from Rick Coduri, Progressive Policy Institute, June 10, 2002, from its website @ www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlgAreaID=87&subsecID=205&contentID=896
l Indiana’s goals today: “Break Away Growth: Economic Strategy Revealed,” Indiana Economic Development Council, from its website @ www.iedc.org/growth/index.html
l Phoenix: “Best Cities to Start and Grow a Company,” Inc., December, 2000, p. 45.
l South Dakota: “Small Business Survival Index 2002,” by Raymond J. Keating, Small Business Survival Committee, July, 2002, pp. 6-7.
l : “Best and Worst States to Run a Small Biz,” by Phillip Harper, citing reports released in July, 2002, on the bCentral website @ www.bcentral.com/articles/harper/141.asp