CHAPTER THIRTY ONE
The Gospel of Change
l : "S&E Degrees Earned by Foreign Students Within Each Field, By Level: 1998-99," a chart (2-20) from the National Science Foundation's Science & Engineering Indicators - 2002 website @ www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/seind02/c2/fig02-20.htm
l Graying of NASA: "Chief Says NASA Losing Skilled Workers; Experienced Staff is Retiring Faster Than Recruits Hired," by Patty Reinert, Houston Chronicle, March 7, 2003, p. A10.
l Centers of technology-based activity: “The Graying of NASA,” by Shirley Ann Jackson, in a release from the Office of the President at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, published in Research USA, April 28, 2003.
l U.S. R&D: “Science and Engineering Indicators – 2002, U.S. and International Research and Development: Funds and Alliances,” also Appendix table 4-40, National Science Foundation, from its website @ www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/seind02/c4/c4s4.htm#c4s-411
l Nobel Prizes: A compilation of laureates from the Nobel Foundation’s website @ www.nobel.se/
l U.S. cultural exports: “American Pop Penetrates Worldwide,” by Paul Farhi and Megan Rosenfeld, Washington Post, October 25, 1998, p. A1. See also
l “Creative Destruction” by Tyler Cowen, Milken Institute Review, Third Quarter, 2003.
l Dumb: “Dumb & Dumber” (New Line Cinema, 1994)
l No education: This was the studio’s promotion line for the film “School of Rock” (Paramount, 2003), as noted in “High Decibel,” by Kenneth Turan, Los Angeles Times, October 3, 2003, Part 5, p. 1.
l Studio ownership, multinational filmmaking: Cowen, Tyler, Creative Destruction: How Globalization is Changing the World’s Cultures (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002)
l Timbuktu: Interview with authors on September 3, 2002.
l Heraclites: Heraclites, Fragments. (circa 500 BC). Referenced by Geldard, Richard, in Remembering Heraclitus, (Great Barrington, MA: Lindisfarne, 2000) p. 158.
CHAPTER THIRTY TWO
l Nuclear families: "The Traditional US Family Increasingly Less Common," by Jean-Michel Stoullig, citing U.S. Census Bureau data, Agence France Presse, May 15, 2001.
l Single/no-parent homes. "A Healthy Shot in the Arm for Marriage," by Darryl E. Owens, citing the Census Bureau, Orlando Sentinel, July 20, 2003, p. F1.
l U.S. elderly: "Seniors' Health: Living Alone," Aetna InteliHealth, referencing the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, November 14, 2001, from its website @ www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/22030/22031/337761.html?d=dmtContent
l U.S. divorce rate: "Hitch Switch," by Matthew Grimm, American Demographics, November 1, 2003, p. 9.
l Rehearsal marriages: Paul, Pamela, The Starter Marriage and the Future of Matrimony (New York: Random House, 2003). Also, "Starter Marriages." ABC News, January 25, 2002, from its website @ http://abcnews.go.com/sections/GMA/GoodMorningAmerica/GMA020125Feature_starter_marriage.html
l School enrollment in U.S.: "School Enrollment 2000," U.S. Census Bureau, from its website @ www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/c2kbr-26.pdf
l U.S. school spending: "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 1999-2000," National Center for Education Statistics, from its website @ www.nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/quarterly/summer/3-7.asp
l Students and reading: "Are Middle and High School Students Reading to Learn or Learning to Read?" by Joan Kuersten, citing a 1998 report from the National Assessment of Educational Progress, from the National Parent Teacher Association website @ www.pta.org/parentinvolvement/parenttalk/read.asp
l Student math skills: "Can't Read, Can't Count," by Rodger Doyle, Scientific American, October, 2001, from its website @ www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=0002514E-D727-1C6E-84A9809EC588EF21
l Pacific Ocean: "Young Americans Flunk Geography, According to National Geographic Quiz Survey," by Paul Recer, Associated Press, November 20, 2002.
l D.C. schools: "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 1999-2000," National Center for Education Statistics, from its website @ www.nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/quarterly/summer/3-7.asp
l D.C. test scores: "D.C. Rates Poorly in Reading, Writing," by Justin Blum, Washington Post, July 23, 2003, p. B5.
l Enron: "Enron Bankruptcy Examiner Also Lays Much Blame With Banks," by Matthew Goldstein, TheStreet.com, July 28, 2003, from its website @ www.thestreet.com/markets/matthewgoldstein/10104107.html
l Accounting scandals: "The Corporate Scandal Sheet," by Penelope Patsuris, Forbes, August 26, 2002, from its website @ www.forbes.com/2002/07/25/accountingtracker.html Also, "Annus Horribilis: Corporate Scandals, Lingering Recession Made 2002 Truly Horrible Year," by Verne Kopytoff, San Francisco Chronicle, December 29, 2002, P. G1. Also, "The Fires That Won't Go Out," by Janice Revell with Doris Burke, Fortune, October 13, 2003, p. 139. Also, "Third Former Rite-Aid Exec Pleads Guilty," by Mark Scolforo, Associated Press, June 26, 2003.
l Satirists: “Remaining U.S. CEOs Make A Break For It,” SatireWire, June, 2002, from its website @ www.satirewire.com/news/june02/ceonistas.shtml
l Costs of scandals: "Corporate Scandals Cost More than $200 Billion, Report Says." By Marcy Gordon, referring to a study by the "No More Enrons" Coalition, Associated Press, October 17, 2002.
l Health spending
. "Human Development Indicators 2003," United Nations Development Program, listing PPP expenditures by country for 2000, from its website @ www.undp.org/hdr2003/indicator/indic_59_1_1.html
l Uninsured Americans: "Number of Uninsured Rose Dramatically Last Year, Figures Show," by Tony Pugh, citing a U.S. Census Bureau report, Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service, September 30, 2003.
l Medical errors: “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System,” Institute of Medicine, a panel of the National Academy of Sciences. November, 1999.
l Alzheimer's: "Statement of Sheldon Goldberg, CEO and President of the Alzheimer's Association," to the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, HHS and Education, Federal Document Clearing House, May 7, 2003.
l Treasury Secretary John Snow: "Pension Funds and Stocks: A Longtime Alliance at Risk," by Mary Williams Walsh, International Herald Tribune, July 29, 2003, p. 12.
l Train wreck: "Tripping Over Pension Shortfalls," by David Henry, Business Week, May 14, 2003.
l Pension shortfall, PBGC: "U.S. Pension Agency Says It May Need a Bailout," by Kathy M. Kristof, Los Angeles Times, October 15, 2003, Part 3, p.1
l United Way
. "United Way to Delay Severance Deal," by Jacqueline L. Salmon, Washington Post, September 28, 2002, p. B1.
lRed Cross: "American Red Cross Faces New Disaster," by Jacqueline L. Salmon, Washington Post, May 19, 2003, p. A8.
l Media scandals: “Yet Another Wake-Up Call,” by Michael Getler, Washington Post, May 22, 2005, p. B6.
l U.S. intelligence and 9/11: "U.S. Intelligence Bobbled 9/11 Clues," CBS News, reporting on a just-released congressional investigation into the incident, September 19, 2002, from its website @ www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/09/18/national/main522460.shtml Also, "Missed Clues, But Old Battle," by Peter Grier, Christian Science Monitor, May 20, 2002, p. 1.
l California recall election: "Voter Guide: Candidate Close-Ups," Los Angeles Times, September 28, 2003, Part S, p. 4. Also: “Schwarzenegger Sworn In as Governor of California,” by Mary Anne Ostrom and Ann E. Marimow, San Jose Mercury News, November 19, 2003.
l Japan's divorce rate: "Divorces Hit All-Time High in Japan as Stigma Against Breaking Up Fades," by Gary Shaefer, Associated Press, September 17, 2003.
l Marriage in Japan: "The Land of Parasite Singles," by Phillip Longman, Business 2.0, September, 2003, p. 105.
l Korea's divorce rate: "Divorce in South Korea: Striking a New Attitude," by Norimitsu Onishi, New York Times, September 21, 2003, Section 1, p. 19.
l Britain's families: "Married Homes Are Now the Exception," by Alexandra Frean, Times London, February 14, 2003, p. 5.
l Japan's classrooms: " 'Classroom Collapse' Gripping Schools Nationwide," by Tomoko Otake, Japan Times, March 28, 2002. Also, "Educators Try to Tame Japan's Blackboard Jungles," by Howard W. French, New York Times, September 23, 2002, Section A, p. 6.
l Bad loans in Japan. "Seven Major Banks Post Losses for Second Straight Year," Daily Yomiuri, May 27, 2003, p. 1.
l Tokyo power company: "TEPCO Reveals Cover-Ups, Resignations," Asahi News Service, September 18, 2002.
l Corporate scandals in Japan: "Japanese Companies Forced to Bolster Corporate Governance," Foreign Press Center of Japan, September 19, 2002, from its website @ www.fpcj.jp/e/shiryo/jb/0233.html
l Daewoo: "Daewoo Corruption Scandal Deepens," British Broadcasting Corp., February 2, 2001, from its website @ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/1149061.stm
l Hyundai: "Curse of the Korean Kennedys," by Richard Lloyd Parry, Times of London, August 14, 2003.
lSK: "SK Chief Gets Three-Year Prison Term for Financial Irregularities," by Jae-Suk Yoo, Associated Press, June 13, 2003.
lParmalat: “Parmalat Chief Admits Diverting Funds,” from Reuters, published in the Los Angeles Times, December 30, 2003, Part C, p. 3.
lCredit Lyonnais: “Federal Reserve Fines French Bank $100 Million,” by Lisa Girion, Los Angeles Times, December 19, 2003, Part C, p. 2.
lSkandia: “Skandia Sues Ex-Executives Over Bonuses,” by Christopher Brown-Humes, Financial Times, December 31, 2003, p. 20.
lElf: “France Probes ‘Misuse of Funds’ in Gas Project,” by Paul Betts and Michael Peel, Financial Times, October 13, 2003, p. 6.
l Royal Dutch/Shell: “Will Shell Change Its Retail Course?” by Christopher O’Leary, Investment Dealers Digest, May 3, 2004.
l : "Is the NHS Falling Apart?" British Council, from its website @ http://elt.britcoun.org.pl/h_nhs.htm
lGerman health service: "Schroder's Little Win," by Peter Schneider, New York Times, September 25, 2002, Section A, p. 21.
lSweden: “Swedish Health System Feels the Economic Pinch,” by Nicholas George and Nicholas Timmins, Financial Times, November 28, 2003, p. 20.
l Japan's health system: "Blueprint for Health Care Reform," Mainichi Daily News, March 31, 2003, p. 2.
l France's pensions: "The Crumbling Pillars of Old Age," The Economist, September 27, 2003, p. 69.
l European retirees: "Europe Faces a Retiree Crisis," by Gene Koretz, Business Week, May 15, 2000, p. 38.
l Pensions in Japan: "Social Security on the Edge: Sweeping Reform of Pension System Needed," by Kenji Uchida, Daily Yomiuri, May 20, 2002, p. 1.
l Korea’s pensions. “Thoughts of the Times: National Pension Crisis,” by Harry Ha, Korea Times, August 19, 1999, from its website @ www.koreatimes.co.kr/14_8/199908/t485139.htm
l Siemens: "Nest Eggs Without the Yolk," The Economist, Special Report, May 10, 2003.
l Le Monde: "Le Monde Dismisses Author of Critical Book," by Jo Johnson, Financial Times, October 1, 2003, p. 2.
l Le Figaro: "In France, a Newspaper Editor's Legal Woes Are Minor News," by Angela Doland, Associated Press, June 26, 2003.
lWar Child: "Pavarotti Charity Cash Was Spent on TV Film," by Maurice Chittenden, Sunday Times of London, January 14, 2001. Also, "Stars Quit Charity in Corruption Scandal," by David Hencke, London Guardian, January 10, 2001, from its website @ www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,3604,420167,00.html
lOil-for-Food: “Texas Businessman Indicted in U.N. Oil-For-Food Probe,” by Phil Hirschkorn, Cable News Network, April 14, 2005, from its website @ www.cnn.com/2005/LAW/04/14/oilfood.indictment
lAnnan: “Annan Cleared Over Oil-For-Food,” British Broadcasting Corp., March 29, 2005, from its website @ http://news/bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4391031.stm Also “Annan’s Post at the U.N. May Be at Risk, Officials Fear,” by Warren Hoge and Judith Miller, New York Times, December 4, 2004, p. A3.
lPeacekeepers: “Explicit Photos Fan U.N. Sex Scandal,” by Maggie Farley, Los Angeles Times, February 12, 2005, Part A, p. 4.
l Terminal crisis: “The Struggle for Iraq,” by Felicity Barringer, New York Times, September 24, 2003, Section A, p. 13.
l World Bank: "Who's Minding the Bank?" by Stephen Fidler, Foreign Policy, September 1, 2001, P. 40.
CHAPTER THIRTY THREE
Corroding the Wires
l World falling into decay: De Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Book Four, Chapter VIII.
l Franklin murder: "Sniper Spree Suspects to First Stand Trial in Virginia," by Curt Anderson, Associated Press, November 8, 2002. Also, "FBI Analyst Survived Cancer to Fall to Sniper's Bullet in Virginia," by Justin Bergman, Associated Press, November 8, 2002. Also, "The Making of a Murder Spree," U.S. News & World Report, November 4, 2002, p. 22.
l Rapid Start: "FBI Technology Shortcomings Hamper Sniper Investigation," by Shane Harris, Government Executive, October 23, 2002, from its website @ www.govexec.com/dailyfed/1002/102302h1.htm
l McVeigh: "Oklahomans Remember Bombing of Federal Building," by Jack Douglas Jr., Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service in Fort Worth Star-Telegram, April 20, 2002.
lFBI computer overhaul, system status: "FBI Technology Upgrade More than a Year Away," by Brian Friel, Government Executive, June 21, 2002, from its website @ www.govexec.com/dailyfed/0602/062102b1.htm
l Hauled over political coals: “F.B.I. May Scrap Vital Overhaul for Computers,” by Eric Lichtblau, New York Times, January 14, 2005, Section A, p. 1.
l Freeh: "Analysis: 'Patterns of Global Terrorism' Report," Washington Post, quoting National War College Prof. Melvin Goodman, May 22, 2002, from its website @ http://discuss.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/zforum/02/nation_goodman052202.htm
l Sniper laptop: "Prosecution Wraps Up Its Capital Case Against Muhammad," by Stephen Kiehl, Baltimore Sun, November 11, 2003, p. 1A.
lHanssen: "FBI Ignored Warning Signs About Hanssen," by Barbara Bradley, National Public Radio's Morning Edition, April 4, 2002.
l Franklin's FBI job: "Capsules of Individuals in the Sniper Shootings Case," Associated Press, October 11, 2003.
l Postal facility: “Tests Point to Domestic Source Behind Anthrax Letter Attacks,” by Scott Shane, citing U.S. Rep. Rush D. Holt (D-NJ), Baltimore Sun, April 11, 2003, p. 1A.
l Slammer virus: “Slow Slammer Response Points to NIPC Woes,” by Paul Roberts, IDG News Service, January 28, 2003, from the Network World Fusion website @ www.nwfusion.com/news/2003/0128slowslamm.html
l Hijacker visas: Posner, Gerald, Why America Slept (New York: Random House, 2003) p. 169.
l State Department: “Inside the Committee that Runs the World,” by David J. Rothkopf, Foreign Policy, March/April, 2005, p. 34.
l Sony shares: “Out of the Shadows,” by Jim Frederick, Time International, March 21, 2005, p. 18.
l Greenpeace: "About Us,"
l Oxfam: "About Us: Organisation of Oxfam GB,"
CHAPTER THIRTY FOUR
l Ohio U. graduates: “School of Recreation and Sports Sciences, Sports Administration and Facility Management: Overview,” Ohio University, from its website @ www.ohiou.edu/sportadmin/overview.htm
l Cape Town cricket: “Aspects of Sports Engineering,” by A.T. Sayers, University of Cape Town, from the website @ www2.mech.kth.se~erik1/sports.html
l Sports software: "Introduction to Sports Scheduling," FriarTuck, July 11, 2003, from the software development company’s website @ www.friartuck.net/solution/spors/htm
l Snobs: "Condescension, or by Another Name, Snobbery," by Alan Riding in his review of Epstein, New York Times, August 21, 2002, Section E, p. 7.
l Astronomically rising complexity: Gates]
l Banking in Germany: "The First Directorate: Banking Supervision," Federal Financial Supervisory Authority, from its website @ www.bafin.de/english/bafin_e.htm
lBasel II: "Asia Faces a Stark Choice," by Tom Holland and Joel Bagiole, Far Eastern Economic Review, September 25, 2003, from its website @ www.feer.com/articles/2003/0309_25/p050money.html
l U.N. trade conference: “International Investment Instruments: A Compendium, Vol. XIV,” United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, January 3, 2005, from its website @ www.unctad.org/Templates/webflyer.asp?docid=5889&intItemID=2323&lang=1
l Software: “Everyone’s a Programmer,” by Claire Tristram, Technology Review, November, 2003, p. 36.
l IT complexity: "Ross: Systems Complexity Threatens Security," by William Jackson, Government Computer News, April 5, 2002, from its website @ www.gcn.com/vol1_no1/daily-updates/18337-1.html
l Cato on tax code: "Simplifying Federal Taxes: The Advantage of Consumption-Based Taxation," by Chris Edwards, Policy Analysis, October 17, 2001, No. 416, pp. 1-2.
l Low savings rate: "Key Reason USA Doesn’t Save: Too Much of a Hassle," USA Today, January 4, 2002, p. 12A.
l Demand for accountants: “Accounting Major,” University of Scranton, from its website @ http://matrix.scranton.edu/academics/ac_factsheet_accounting.shtml
lAccounting complexity: “Accounting: Facts and Trends,” Careers in Accounting, from the online job-search service’s website @ www.careers-in-accounting.com/acfacts.htm
l Medical specialties, trials: “Enabling Prospective Health Care,” by David M. Lawrence, 2002, from the website for the 2002 Duke University Private Sector Conference @ http://conferences.mc.duke.edu/2002dpsc.nsf/contentsnum/af
l Complexity and Europe: "Managing Complexity: The New Challenge," European Commission's Innovation and SMEs Programme, published in its Innovation & Transfer Technology newsletter, May, 2002, and on its website @ www.cordis.lu/itt/itt-en/02-3/innov03.htm
l State solutions: "Can France Be Reformed?” by Wendy Thomson of the British Prime Minister's Office of Public Services Reform, in a speech for the Economist Conference in Paris, January 29-30, 2003.
l University complexity: "Internationalism and Globalization: The Rising Complexity of the Policy Field HE," by Karola Kampf, Center for Higher Education Policy Studies at Twente University, the Netherlands, from the university's website @ www.utwente.nl/cheps/documenten/susukampf.pdf
l World problems: Union of International Associations, p. 30.
CHAPTER THIRTY FIVE
The Sepulveda Solution
l Car wash: Sepulveda West Car Wash, 2001 S. Sepulveda Blvd., Los Angeles, CA, 90025.
l World's biggest company: "Ma Who? AT&T Loses a Familiar Name," Time, August 15, 1983, p. 45.
l Bell Labs: "Bell Labs' Nobel Legacy," Lucent Technologies, October, 1998, from the website @ www.belllabs.com/news/1998/october/20/4.html
l A million employees, AT&T breakup: "Breaking Up Is Hard To Do," by John S. DeMott, Time, January 16, 1984, p. 52.
l Acquired by SBC: “Telecom Mergers Could Result in Vigorous Rivalry,” by Jon Van, Chicago Tribune, June 8, 2005.
l Education presidents: (Clinton) "The Second Term: Education," by Allison Mitchell, New York Times, February 5, 1997, Section A, p. 21. (Bush Sr.) "Bush Urges 'Education Renaissance'," from the Washington Post, published in the Toronto Star, April 19, 1991, p. A21.
l Bush and education: "Agreement on $26.5B Education Bill," by Elaine S. Povich, Newsday, December 12, 2001, p. A13.
l Bush and school testing: "Bush Pumps Up Educators About Reforms, Funds," by Sabrina Eaton, Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 10, 2002, p. A2.
l Homeland Security Department: "Major Management Challenges and Program Risks: Department of Homeland Security," General Accounting Office, Reports & Testimony, February 1, 2003, Vol. 2003, No. 2.
l U.N. sham transformation: "Annan Urges World Leaders to Push for Expanding Security Council to Reflect New Realities," by Ranjan Roy, Associated Press, September 24, 2003.
l Security Council structure: “Security Council,” Charter of the United Nations, Chapter V, Articles 23 and 27, from the website @ www.un.org/aboutun/charter/ In 1971, the General Assembly voted to transfer China’s permanent seat on the Security Council from the Taiwan government to the government in Bejing.
l IBM service revenues: “Consolidated Statement of Earnings, 2004” from the IBM email@example.com/annualreport/2004/annual/cfs_earnings.shtml
lServices employees: “IBM Global Services,” from the company’s website @ www-306.ibm.com/employment/us/div_glbsvcs.shtml
lKodak's move to digital: "Kodak's Photo Op," by Daniel Eisenberg, Time, April 30, 2001, p. 46. Also, "Can Celluloid Survive?" by Stephen Williams, Newsday, July 9, 2003, p. B8.
l Kodak’s digital success: “Kodak Gains on Sony in U.S. Digital Camera Market,” by Ben Dobbin, Associated Press, November 19, 2004.
l Bratton becomes NYPD chief: “For Los Angeles’s New Police Chief, A New World,” by Charlie LeDuff, New York Times, December 6, 2002, Section A, p. 20.
l NYPD police force: "Chief Bratton Takes on L.A.," by Heather Mac Donald, City Journal of New York, Autumn, 2003, p. 30.
l CompStat: "CompStat's Driving Force," by Jim McKay, Government Technology, November, 2003, from its website @ www.govtech.net/magazine/story.php?id=75047. Also, "CompStat: From Humble Beginnings," by Tom Steinert-Threlkeld, Baseline, September 9, 2002, from the Ziff-Davis website @ www.baselinemag.com/article2/0,3959,1152597,00.asp
l "Broken Windows" policy: "LAPD Tests New Policing Strategy," by Richard Winton and Kristina Sauerwein, Los Angeles Times, February 2, 2003, Part 2, p. 1.
l NYC crime rate: "Chief Bratton Takes on L.A.," by Mac Donald, Crime rate in LA: "LA's Major Crime Rate Dips 14 Percent in 2005," Associated Press, January 6, 2006.
l Like economic data, crime statistics leave much to be desired. No doubt, they have been improved since Albert D. Biderman, in the mid-1960s, analyzed FBI data showing that “serious crime” was increasing every year. The definition of a serious crime was one that involved $50 or more. Biderman’s conclusion: the “rising crime” data reflected two seldom-noted factors: inflation had sent the price of many things into the above-$50 range and affluence meant that more people had more valuable things worth stealing. “Social Indicators and Goals” by Albert D. Biderman, Chapter Two in Bauer, Raymond A., ed. (Cambridge, MA: Social Indicators, 1966)
l Steam engine: (Newcomen) “And The Credit Goes To,” by Gerard J. Holtzmann, Inc., September, 2000, p. 176. (Savery) “Harnessing the Void," by Robert O. Woods, Mechanical Engineering, December, 2003, Vol. 125, No. 12, p. 38. Other inventors: “Encyclopedia Brittanica’s Great Inventions,” from its 2003 Almanac and website @ http://corporate.britannica.com/press/inventions.html
l First LLC: “LLC History,” Limited Liability Company Reporter, from its website @ www.llc-reporter.com/16.htm
l London map: "Fire Insurance Plans of B.C. Cities: Introduction, History," University of British Columbia, from its library website @ www.library.ubc.ca/spcoll/fireins/intro.htm
l Yunus, collection problems: "Opportunity Knocks With Microfinance," by Carl Mortished, Times of London, February 8, 2002.
l : "Here's a Business Plan to Fight Poverty," by Peter Carbonara, Fast Company, December/January, 1998, p. 58.
lGrameen loans, loans to women: “Grameen Bank At A Glance,” March, 2005, from the Grameen website @ www.grameen-info.org/bank/GBGlance.htm
l Other countries, foundation: Grameen Foundation USA. "Who We Are," Grameen Foundation, November, 2003, from its website @ www.gfusa.org/
l Repayment rate: "Small Loans, Big Gains," Boston Globe, November 19, 2002, p. A22.
l Trump, NGOs, MicroRate, Von Stauffenberg: "Doing Good by Doing Well," U.S. Banker, August, 2003, Vol. 113, No. 8, p. 46.
l Shopkeepers: "Grameen Bank, Which Pioneered Loans for the Poor, Has Hit a Repayment Snag," by Daniel Pearl and Michael Phillips, Wall Street Journal, November 27, 2001, cited in "Social Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries," by Sara Foryt, an article on the United Nations Environment Program Financial Initiatives website @ http://unepfi.net/venture/svcdn.pdf
l Search engines: “Searches Per Day,” by Danny Sullivan, 2003, from the Search Engine Watch website @ http://searchenginewatch.com/reports/print.php/34701_2156461
l Person to Person: "Welfare Model Serves Providers, Not The Clients," by Vern Hughes, Australian Financial Review, November 7, 2003, p. 83.
l : “History of Humboldt-Universitat,” Berlin University, from its website @ www.hu-berlin.de/hu/geschichte/hubdt_e.html Also, “The European Office in Berlin: What We Do,” Johns Hopkins University, from its website @ www.jhu.edu/~europe/whatwedo.html
l Social invention curricula: “How to Save the World? Treat It Like a Business,” by Emily Eakin, New York Times, December 20, 2003, Section B, p. 7.
l wards: Examples include the Social Innovations Awards offered by the Institute for Social Invention in London (www.globalideasbank.org/Awards2003.html) and the Australian Competition for Social Inventions (www.globalideasbank.org/reinv/RIS-253.html)
l Business model patents: "Skyrocketing Method Patents Stifling Innovation, Say Critics," by Justin Pope, Associated Press, November27, 2003.
CHAPTER THIRTY SIX
Coda: After Decadence
l Relative cost of food: "Food CPI, Prices and Expenditures: Expenditures as a Share of Disposable Income," Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, from its website @ www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/CPIFoodAndExpenditures/Data/table7.htm
l Clothing expenditures: "Consumer Dominance Hits a 54-Year High," a chart accompanying an article by Floyd Norris, New York Times, December 1, 2003, Section C, p. 2.
l Home ownership in 1950: "Historical Census of Housing Tables: Ownership Rates," U.S. Census Bureau, from its website @ www.census.gov/hhes/www/housing/census/historic/ownrate.html
l Home ownership today: "Homes for the Holidays," by Daniela Deane, citing figures from the U.S. Commerce Department, Washington Post, December 20, 2003, p. F1.
l Second homes: Easterbrook, p. 6.
l Life expectancy in America: “U.S. Life Expectancy Hits New High,” by Laura Meckler, referring to report released by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Associated Press, September 13, 2002.
l Companies want to be loved: “Macho Business Muscle Gives Itself a Feminine Makeover,” by Richard Tomkins, Financial Times, May 17, 2005, p. 8.
l Boxing: "Fixin' For Trouble," by Tim Smith, New York Daily News, September 21, 2003, p. 72.
l Black Sox: "Fade to 'Black' ," by Pat Rooney, Rocky Mountain News, July 14, 2003, p. H8.
l Olympics and drugs: "Sports and Drugs," by Ron Kroichick, San Francisco Chronicle, December 29, 2003, p. C1.
l Olympics and bribery: "Salt Lake Looks to Olympic Effect," by Matthew Garrahan, Financial Times, February 8, 2002, p. 7.
l Little League: "The Enron-ing of Little League," by Blake Miller, Philadelphia, September, 2003.
l Athlete arrests, team owner: "Blood Sport," by Hugo Lindgren, New York Times Magazine, August 31, 2003, p. 13. Also, "When Pros Turn Cons," by John Gibeaut, American Bar Association Journal, July, 2000. Also, "Victim's Mother Win Judgment Against Carruth, Other Defendants," Associated Press, October 15, 2003.
l Extremes: (Sports) Extreme Sports Channel website @ www.extreme.com/misc/index.php (Software) Steinberg, Daniel H. and Palmer, Daniel W., Extreme Software Engineering: A Hands-On Approach (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2004) (Mountain biking) "Sites for Sore Thighs," by Tarquin Cooper, London Daily Telegraph, March 16, 2002, p. 22. (Fashion) "Automatic Innovator," an interview with Karl Lagerfeld in WWD, November 17, 2003, p. 12. (Makovers) “Nip, Tuck Trend Goes Mainstream,” by Sheri Hall, Detroit News, March 28, 2004. p. 1A. (Pumpkin carving) The ExtremePumpkins.com. website @ www.extremepumpkins.com (Elvis) “Extreme Elvis,” from the website @ www.extremeelvis.com/index_main.htm (Porn sites) Google search for "extreme fetish," @ www.google.com/search?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&q=extreme+fetish+&btnG=Google+ Search
l Spa: “Gucci Cucci,” Black Book, Fall, 2003, p. 60.
l Abercrombie: "Sexy Ads: What Exactly Are They Selling to Kids?" by Allie Shah, Minneapolis Star Tribune, December 23, 2003, p. 1A.
l Sweepstakes: Vegas.com Skyroller Sweepstakes, a promotion included in the October 5, 2003, Los Angeles Times.
l Grand Theft Auto: "Violent Video Game Has Parents, Experts Concerned About Children Who Play It," by James A. Fussell of the Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service, published in the Kansas City Star on February 26, 2003.
l Rappers: “Worth a Second Act?” by Geoff Boucher, Montreal Gazette, December 12, 2002, p. D1. Also, “Rap at the Crossroads,” by Alec Foege, Playboy, January, 1998, p. 62.
l Cannibal, law on cannibalism: "Germans Get a Look at the Dark Side of Cyberspace," by Jeffrey Fleishman, Los Angeles Times, December 31, 2003, Part 1, p. 3.
l Misfits: "Re: The Misfits Issue," Black Book’s response to a reader's letter, Fall, 2003, p. 50.
l Rap groups’ new image: “Sweeten the Image: Hold the Bling-Bling,” by Lola Ogunnaike, New York Times, January 12, 2004, Section E, p. 1. Also, “Pop and Jazz Guide,” New York Times, February 21, 2003, Section E, p. 35.
l eHarmony: "The Internet Battle of the Sexes," by Anna Kuchment, Newsweek, Issues 2004, December 22, 2003, p. 58. Also, "Love.com," by Anna Muirine, U.S. News & World Report, September 29, 2003, p. 52. Also, eHarmony @ www.eharmony.com/core/eharmony;jsessionid=m2DH6XZShvd9?cmd=eh-different
l Online groups: “Meetup Organizes Local Interest Groups,” from the meetup.com website @ www.meetup.com.
l Starbucks and Borders: “Working Hard for the Money – Over Latte,” by Catherine Donaldson-Evans, Fox News, March 29, 2002, from its website @ www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,49057,00.html
l Coffee with WIFI: “Zip to the Net with WI-FI,” by Stan Choe, Charlotte Observer, December 9, 2002, p. 10D.
l Book program: “Parton’s Imagination Library Delivers Millionth Book,” Associated Press, December 13, 2003.
l Book program in 2004: “Year in Review, 2004,” from the Imagination Library website @ www.imaginationlibrary.com/news.php
l Homeschooling: “Homeschooling in the United States: 1999,” National Center for Education Statistics, from its website@ http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/HomeSchool/
l Online tools: “Web Resources for Home-Schooling,” by Irene E. McDermott, Searcher, September 1, 2003, p. 27.
l Charter schools: “The Case Against Charter Schools,” by Bruno V. Manno, School Administrator, May, 2001, from its website @ www.aasa.org/publications/sa/2001_05/2001_manno.htm
l CART: "School Profile: The Center for Advanced Research and Technology," Center on Education and Work, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2002, from its website @ www.cew.wisc.edu/charterSchools/profilecart.asp
l Ultra-sonic cane: "High-Tech High," by James Hattori, Cable News Network, February 17, 2001, from its website @ www.cnn.com/2001/TECH/science/02/17/index.cart/
lAIDS vaccine, U.S. research: "Can He Find A Cure?" by Geoffrey Cowley, Newsweek, June 11, 2001, p. 39.
lBusiness schools: “How to Save the World? Treat It Like a Business,” by Emily Eakin, New York Times, December 20, 2003, Section B, p. 7.
l Incubator: “ ‘Going to Scale’ and the Social Benefit Entrepreneur,” by Patrick Guerra and James L. Koch, STS Nexus, a publication by Santa Clara University, Fall, 2003, p. 7.
l World Economic Forum: “Seeking Common Ground,” by Arlene Getz, Newsweek Online, January 24, 2003.
l Fanatics: “Hezbollah Branches Out to Win Support,” by Robert Collier, San Francisco Chronicle, March 13, 2003, p. A8. Also, “A Nation Challenged: The Money Trail,” by Joseph Kahn and Patrick E. Tyler, New York Times, November 3, 2001, Section B, p. 1.
l Homelessness: The homeless fall between cracks in the system, and rich countries could surely do better by them. But putting homelessness in historical perspective, the Nobel economist Robert Fogel reminds us that “Down to the middle of the 19th century between 10 and 20 percent of the population in Britain and on the Continent were homeless persons that officials classified as vagrants and paupers.” The major cities of the U.S., at about the same time, were little different. By contrast, Fogel adds, “when we speak of homelessness in the United States today, we are talking about rates below 0.4 percent of the population.” Fogel, Robert W., The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700-2100, (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004)
l Cassandra: "A Century of Change: The U.S. Labor Force, 1950-2000," by Mitra Toossi, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, from its website @ www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2002/05/art2exc.htm
l U.S jobless vs. Europe: “U.S. Labor Market Performance in International Perspective,” by Constance Sorrentino and Joyanna Moy, Monthly Labor Review, June, 2002, p. 15.
l U.S. water pollution: “Environmental Protection Agency: Budget, Fiscal Year 2004,” Environmental Protection Agency, in conjunction with the Office of Management and Budget, from the OMB website @ www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2004/epa.html
l Air pollution in U.S.: “Air Trends: 2002 Highlights,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, from its website @ www.epa.gov/airtrends/highlights.html
l Kyoto: “Sparks Fly at Summit; Bush Stands Alone Against Treaty on Climate,” by Bennett Roth, Houston Chronicle, July 22, 2001, p. A1. Also, “Europe Turns Its Anger Against Bush,” by Martin Fletcher and Giles Whittell, Times of London, June 15, 2001. Also: “Bush admits Human Role in Climate Change” by Caroline Daniel and Fiona Harvey, FinancialTimes, July 7, 2005, p. 3.
CHAPTER THIRTY SEVEN
Capitalism's End Game
l Property definition: New Oxford American Dictionary (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001) p. 1366.
l Intangible property, capital-poor countries: De Soto pp. 4-6.
l Google: “Internet Giant Google Shares Trade Higher in Debut,” by Matthew Fordahl, Associated Press, August 20, 2004.
l Intangibles and market value: “Trying to Grasp the Intangible,” by Thomas A. Stewart, referring to a Brookings Institution study by economist Margaret Blair, Fortune, October 2, 1995, p. 157.
l Innovation and intangibility: “Intangible Assets: An Interview with Baruch Lev,” by Heather Baukney, CIO, March 15, 2001, from the IT World website @ www.itworld.com/Man/2698/CIO010315lev/
l Declining fractions of spending: "Understanding the Evolution of U.S. Manufacturing," testimony by Robert Hall before the U.S. Senate Finance Committee, July 8, 2003, from the Senate website @ http://finance.senate.gov/hearings/testimony/2003test/070803rhtest.pdf
l Product piracy: “2004 Special 301 Report,” Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, from its website @ www.ustr.gov/reports/2004-301/special301.htm
l Volokh: Interview with the authors in Los Angeles, June, 2004.
l Barlow: "Fair Use Under Assault," by Steve Gillmor, InfoWorld, January 24, 2003, from its website @ www.infoworld.com/article/03/01/24/030124hnbarlow_1.html
l Composers and royalties: “The Economy of Ideas,” by John Perry Barlow, Wired, March, 1994, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology website @ www.swiss.ai.mit.edu/6805/articles/int-prop/barlow-economy-of-ideas.html
l New life forms: "Can You Patent a Mouse - Or an Engineered Fish?" by Tracey Tyler, Toronto Star, May 19, 2002, p. A1.
CHAPTER THIRTY EIGHT
l Darrow: "Go Directly to Jail, Do Not Pass Go, Do Not Collect Forty Billion Dollars," by Bill Hartson,Independent, November 17, 1995, Life section, p. 4.
l Monopoly statistics: "History of Monopoly," from the Hasbro Inc. website @ www.hasbro.com/monopoly/pl/page.history/dn/default.cfm
l 1920s Wall Street: Chernow, p. 41.
l Stock ownership in 1950s: “Today in NYSE History – June 26, 1962,” New York Stock Exchange, from its website @ www.nyse.com/about/TodayInNYSE.html
l 1970 stock ownership: "Small Investors Take a Fresh Look at Stocks," U.S. News & World Report, October 19, 1981, p. 93.
l Ford family ownership, shareholders today: “Learn About Ford – An American Legend,” Ford Motor Co., from its website @ www.ford.ca/english/LearnAbout/NewsReleases/pr20030520_2.asp
l Ford goes public: “Wall Street Party to Mark 40 Years of Ford on the Floor,” by Alan L. Adler, Detroit Free Press, January 17, 1996, p. 1E.
l American workers: “Reforms Could Embolden Employees,” by James Flanigan, Los Angeles Times, July 28, 2002, Part 3, p. 1.
lHome ownership. “Homes for the Holidays,” by Daniela Deane, Washington Post, December 20, 2003, p. F1.
l Credit cards and consumer debt: “Most of Us Still Afloat,” by Scott Burns, Dallas Morning News, March 6, 2005, p. D1.
l Stock ownership in China. "Small Is Not Beautiful When It Comes To China's Inviting Stock Market," by Stephen Green, Japanese Institute of Global Communications, republishing an article from the May 12, 2003, edition of the South China Morning Post, from the institute's website @ www.glocom.org/special_topics/asia_rep/20030512_asia_s16/
l Market democratization. "The Democratization of America's Capital Markets," by John V. Duca, Economic and Financial Review, Second Quarter, 2001, pp. 10-19.
l Google founders, IPO strategy: "Searching for a $2.7 Billion Result, Google Files IPO Plan," by Dan Thanh Dang, Baltimore Sun, April 30, 2004, p. 1A.
l Google's IPO plan: "A Cartel-Buster," The Economist, May 8, 2004.
l Google share price: "You, the Next Google Millionaire?" by Walter Updegrave, CNN/Money, April 26, 2004, from its website @ http://money.cnn.com/2004/04/26/pf/expert/ask_expert/ By mid-2005, less than a year after its initial offering, Google stock had tripled.
l Tickers on TV: "Hanging on Every Word," by Mark Jurkowitz, Boston Globe, August 4, 2002, p. E1.
l CNN and outsourcing: "An Economist's Ill-Advised Moment of Truth," by Gerard Baker, Financial Times, February 19, 2004, p. 17.
l Bush and cable networks: "Bush's Economic Address, Suffering Slings and (Down) Arrows," by Howard Kurtz, Washington Post, July 22, 2002. p. C1.
l Yago: Interview with the authors, May 24, 2004. Also, Yago, Glenn and Trimbath, Susanne, Beyond Junk Bonds: Expanding High Yield Markets (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003)
l Indonesia rates: exchangerate.com. “Indonesia – Economy,” exchangerate.com, from its website @ www.exchangerate.com/country_info.html?cont=All&cid=110&action=Submit
CHAPTER THIRTY NINE
lVillage or manor labor: Crone, pp. 22, 27.
lFirst bank: (Chengdu) “A Famous Cultural City,” China Travel Service, from its website @ www.cts.com.cn/esite/chengducity/cultural.htm (Pingyao) “Pingyao Ancient Town,” Regent Tours, from its website @ www.regenttour.com/chinaplanner/pingyao/pingyao-glance.htm (Banca Monte dei Paschi) National Italian American Foundation, from the website @ www.floria-publications.com/italy/italian_culture/
l Cities in 1800, 1900: "From Rio to Johannesburg: Urban Governance - Thinking Globally, Acting Locally," by Molly O'Meara Sheehan, citing Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census, by Tertius Chandler (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press,1987) August 29, 2002, from the WorldWatch Institute website @ www.worldwatch.org/press/news/2002/08/29/ Also, "Political Disorganization and Problems of Scale," by Norman Gall, Fernand Braudel Institute of World Economics, Paper No. 28, from its website @ www.braudel.org.br/paping28a.htm
l Penny press: Stephens,pp. 204-206.
l First department store, Cast Iron Palace: "The Department Store," University of San Diego History Department, January 9, 2004, from its website @ http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/soc/shoppingcenter4.html
l First catalog: "1872 Montgomery Ward - First Mail-Order House," Chicago Public Library, from its website @ www.chipublib.org/004chicago/timeline/mtgmryward.html
l Airline prices: "The New Realities of Dynamic Pricing," by Ajit Kambil and Vipul Agrawal, Outlook, a publication by Accenture, 2001, No. 2, p. 15.
l Priceline: "Sites to Behold," by Michael Shapiro, Washington Post, September 15, 2000, p. E4.
l Velvet painting: Banner advertisement for Western Union Auction Payments program on the website @ www.auctionpayments.com/
l End of mass market: "Profits in the Age of an "Audience of One'," by Simon London and Tim Burt, Financial Times, April 16, 2004, p. 10.
l Toyotas: “Camry Facts,” from the Toyota website @ http://pressroom.toyota.com/mediakit/camry/factsheet2.html
l: “Prowler Will Die Along With Plymouth Line,” Detroit Free Press, December 20, 2001, p. G1.
lIdaho baby: "Toddler Who Beat Death Still in Critical Condition," Associated Press, May 29, 2004.
lB2C online sales: “Internet Marketing: An Overview,” by Jianwei Hou and Cesar Rego of the University of Mississippi, citing estimates from eMarketer, 2002, p. 11, from the school’s website @ http://faculty.bus.olemiss.edu/crego/papers/hces0802.pdf
l Commerce Dept. : “A Perfect Market,” by Paul Markille, The Economist, May 15, 2004.
l Aeroxchange founders: "Aeroxchange History," 2004, from the Aeroxchange website @ www.aeroxchange.com/custom/public/corp_info/history.htm
l Aeroxchange operations: "Slow Exchange," by Peter Conway, Airline Business, October 1, 2003, P. 56.
l Industry exchanges: (Restaurants) "Restaurant B2B," www.business.com/directory/food_and_beverage/restaurants_and_foodservice/b2b_markets/ (All others) "B2B Exchange Survivors," by Steve Ulfelder, Computerworld, February 2, 2004, from its website @ www.computerworld.com/softwaretopics/erp/story/0,10801,89568,00.html
l Business-to-business commerce: “Worldwide B2B E-Commerce to Surpass $1T in 2003,” eMarketer, from its website @ www.emarketer.com/eStatDatabase/ArticlePreview.aspx?1002129
Running Tomorrow's Money
l Picard: "Out of Our Imagination," by Lanny Floyd in IEEE Industry Applications, referring to the film "Star Trek: First Contact" (Paramount, 1996), January/February 2003, p. 8.
l Cashiers: “Cashiers,” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2002 figure from its website @ www.bls.gov/oco/ocos116.htm
l Accountants: “About IFAC,” International Federation of Accountants, 2004, from its website @ www.ifac.org/About/
l Jonathan's: “From Coffee Houses to Computer Screens,” by Clare Stewart, Times London, November 13, 1999.
l U.S. finance workforce: "National Employment: Financial Activities" and "Labor Force Statistics: Civilian Labor Force," U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2002 figures from its website @ http://data.bls.gov/servlet/SurveyOutputServlet
l UK finance workers: “Industries and Sectors: Financial/Overview,” U.K. Department of Trade and Tourism, 2000, from its website @ www.dti.gov.uk/sectors_financial.html
l $195 billion: “XML Authoring in the Financial Services Industry,” by Max Dunn, XML Journal, June 1, 2003, Vol. 6, No. 4, p. 6.
l Top IT spender: “Financial Firms and Tech Spending,” Wall Street & Technology, referring to a study by Forrester Research, September 1, 2002, p. 10.
l IT spending vs. GDPs: “Rank Order – GDP,” World Factbook 2001, from its website @ www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/rankorder/2001rank.html
l Computerized speculation: "Day Trading, Take 2," by David Landis, Kiplinger's Personal Finance, April, 2004.
l Unrecognizable market, foreign exchange trading: “Where Money Talks Very Loudly,” by Jennifer Hughes, Financial Times, May 27, 2004, Special Report; Foreign Exchange, p. 1.
l Compared to NYSE: “2003 Year-End Review and Statistics,” New York Stock Exchange, from its website @ www.nyse.com/press/1072870219900.html
l Stock exchange photography: Interview with the authors, June 5, 2004.
l Pacific exchange: “Online Pacific Exchange Is Thriving,” by Carolyn Said, San Francisco Chronicle, January 24, 2004, p. I1.
l Money terms: “Monetary Trends – Definitions,” Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, from its website @ http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/mt/notes.pdf
l Wildcat currencies: Galbraith, John Kenneth, Money (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975) p.92. Also: “History of Money,” Newshour with Jim Lehrer, from the Public Broadcasting Corp. website @ www.pbs.org/newshour/on2/money/history.html
l Yen: "A Look Back on Long, Complex History of Yen, Dollar," by Hiroshi Ota, Daily Yomiuri, April 28, 1999, p. 11.
l Mark: "Europe's National Currencies," by Jonathan Williams and Andrew Meadows, History Today, January 1, 2002, Vol. 52, No. 1, p. 19.
l China's currencies: "A Global History of Currency: China," Global Financial Data, Inc., from its website @ www.globalfindata.com/gh/69.html
l Renminbi: "Mao to Star as China Launches New Yuan Notes for 50th Anniversary," Agence France Presse, July 2, 1999.
l National card forerunner, card spending vs. cash: "J.P. Williams, 88, Bank Card Creator, Dies," by Douglas Martin, New York Times, November 21, 2003, p. C11.
l Credit cards in use: “Doors Close, A Window Opens,” by Joseph Mallia, citing the website cardweb.com, Newsday, March 8, 2004, p. A17.
l Only for other flights: “History of Frequent Flyer Programs,” by Randy Petersen, Webflyer.com, May, 2001, from its website @ www.webflyer.com/company/press_room/facts_and_stats/history.php
l Non-transferable: “Dealing in the Airline ‘Gray’ Market,” by Carole Gould, New York Times, June 1, 1986, Section 3, p. 13.
l Family members and friends: “Buying and Selling Airline Miles,” by Rudy Maxa, Awardtraveler.com, www.awardtraveler.com/articles.asp?articleno=27
l Merchandise: (Hockey tickets and health club) “Your Miles Are Good For More Than Flights,” by Ted Reed, Charlotte Observer, November 10, 2003, p. D7. (All others) “Making the Most of Your Flier Miles,” by Toddi Gutner, Business Week, June 2, 2003, p. 100.
l Cash for points: “How to Whittle Down a Mountain of Frequent-Flier Miles,” by Sam Ali, Newhouse News Service, June 15, 2004.
l Muslim credit card: "The Very Model of a Modern Moslem State," by James Kynge, Financial Times, April 26, 1997, p. 1.
l Boycotts: (Nike) “Free Speech or False Advertising?” by Stanley Holmes, Business Week, April 28, 2003, p. 69. (Shell) “U.N. Report on Nigerian Human Rights Calls for Investigation of Shell,” Sierra Club, from its website @ www.sierraclub.org/human-rights/nigeria/releases/boycott.asp (Gap) “Businesses Decide to Tackle Problem of Being American,” by Carl Weiser, Gannett News Service, February 23, 2004.
l Paying via cell phones: "No Cash or Card? Pay by Phone," by Jane Croft, Financial Times, October 23, 2003, p. 16.
l Banks and Visa, Nordea exec: “Mobile Phone Plan May Hasten Cashless Society,” by James Mackintosh, Financial Times, June 28, 2001, p. 9.
l Finger ID: “JCB Makes Biometric and Mobile Breakthroughs,” Electronic Payments International, February 13, 2004, p. 4.
l Other biometrics: "Biometrics Come to Life," by Orla O'Sullivan, ABA Banking Journal, January, 1997, p. 31.
l Card alternatives, Gage: “Will That Be Cash, Fingerprint or Cellphone?” by Kevin Maney, USA Today, November 17, 2003, p. 1E.
l Sony currency: “Sony Lab Proposes Corporate E-Currency,” Nikkei Weekly, October 27, 2003.
l Distressed economies: (Southeast Asia) “Bartering Gains Currency in Hard-Hit Southeast Asia,” by Darren McDermott and S. Karene Witcher, Wall Street Journal, April 7, 1998. (South America) “Where to Swap Till You Drop,” by Hector Tobar, Los Angeles Times, May 6, 2002, p. A1. (Russia) “Fissure Finance,” a review of the book Money Unmade: Barter and the Fate of Russian Capitalism, by David M. Woodruff (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1999), The Economist, September 18, 1999, p. 5.
l Companies using barter: "Seven Ways to Barter Smarter," by Carrie Coolidge, Forbes, May 21, 2004, from its website @ www.forbes.com/2004/05/21/cz_cc_0521bartertips_print.html
l Grain bartering: “For Wary Argentines, The Crops Are Cash,” by Leslie Moore, New York Times, December 1, 2002, p. C6.
l Bombers for gas: "Kiev to Pay Russian Debts With Bombers," by Charles Clover, Financial Times, August 9, 1999, p. 3.
l Russian vodka, alpaca to zinc: “Fair Trade,” by Cullen Murphy, Atlantic Monthly, February, 1996, Vol. 277, No. 2, pp. 16-18.
l Lietaer: “Bernard Lietaer Urges the Growth of New Currency,” Bank Technology News, July, 2004, Vol. 17, No. 7, p. 32. Also, “Co-Creator of the Euro Offers Terra,” by Aldo Svaldi, Denver Post, October 24, 2003, p. C1.
l Massive barter economy: “The Original Meaning of Trade Meets the Future in Barter,” by Bob Meyer, BarterNews, 1999, from its website @ www.barternews.com/worldtrade.htm
l Ithaca: “ ‘Conway Hours’ Add Local Focus to Buying,” by Michelle Hillen, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, November 29, 2003, p. 17.
l Bartered hours: Cahn,