CHAPTER FORTY ONE
The Old Future of Poverty
l Total foreign aid: Easterly, p. 33.
l World population in poverty, poverty in Asia: “Global Poverty Down by Half Since 1981, But Progress Uneven As Economic Growth Eludes Many Countries,” World Bank, April 23, 2004, from its website @ www.worldbank.org.cn/English/content/776w62628918.shtml
l World population in 1650: “Historical Estimates of World Population,” U.S. Census Bureau, April 30, 2004, from its website @ www.census.gov/ipc/www/worldhis.html
l Beauvasis: Braudel, p. 52.
l French diet in 18th Century: Fogel,
lTwice as rich: Parente, pp. 11-12.
l Poverty in Asia: "Global Poverty Down By Half Since 1981, But Progress Uneven As Economic Growth Eludes Many Countries," World Bank, April 23, 2004, from its website @ http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:20194973~menuPK:34463~pagePK:64003015~piPK:64003012~theSitePK:4607,00.html
l Deming: “Quality Put Into Practice,” by Morgan Witzel, Financial Times, August 13, 2003, p. 11. Also, “History’s Hidden Turning Points,” by Daniel J. Boorstin with Gerald Parshall, U.S. News & World Report, April 22, 1991, p. 52. Also, “American Guru Who Taught Importance of Quality Control Is About to Turn 100,” by Richard Lee, Stamford Advocate, May 7, 2004.
l Car quality: "Hyundai Joins Toyota, Honda Atop Quality List," MSNBC, April 28, 2004, from its website @ www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4854302/
l Asimov: Asimov, Isaac, I, Robot (New York: Gnome Press, 1950)
l GM’s first robot: “RIA Chooses 2003 Engelberger Winners,” Assembly, Vol. 46, No. 9, p. 12
l Engelberger on Japan: “1961: A Peep Into the Automated Future,” by Paul Mickle, Trenton Trentonian, from the website @ www.capitalcentury.com/1961.htm
l Cars and robots: “The Rapid Expansion of Motorization (1965-1975),” Japanese Automobile Manufacturers Association, from its website @ www.japanauto.com/about/industry8.htm
l Japan’s robot industry: “Electronics Manufacturing and Assembly in Japan,” by John A. Kukowski and William R. Boulton, Japanese Technology Evaluation Center, February, 1995, from the World Technology Evaluation Center website @ www.wtec.org/loyola/ep/c5s1.htm
l Toyota sales in 1957 and 2002, production in U.S.: Toyota Motor Corp. “About Toyota: Operations – Sales & Service.” From the company’s website @ www.toyota.com/about/operations/sales-service/
l Best-selling import: “Toyota on Verge of 10%; Product Blitz Sends U.S. Market Share Toward Statistical Milestone,” by Mark Rechtin and Harry Stoffer, Automotive News, December 11, 2000, p. 1.
l IBM rival: Vogel, p. 12.
l Semiconductors from Japan: “Scott and Bill Went Up the Hill,” by John Carey, Business Week, March 16, 1998, p. 26.
l Japan displaced U.S.: “Japan – Foreign Relations: Other Asia-Pacific Countries,” Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, from its website @ http://countrystudies.us/japan/134.htm
l Japan's FDI to Asia: (1980-1985) "Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Asia: Its Impact on Export Expansion and Technology Acquisition of the Host Economies," by Shujiro Urata, Japan Center for Economic Research and Waseda University, March, 1998, from its website @ www.jcer.or.jp/eng/pdf/discussion53.pdf. Also: (1986-2000) "Patterns and Strategies of Foreign Direct Investment: The Case of Japanese Firms," by Kang H. Park, Applied Economics, November 10, 2003, Vol. 35, No. 16, p. 1739.
l Shifting Asian workforce: (1970) 1972 New York Times Almanac. (New York: New York Times, 1971) (2000) 2004 New York Times Almanac (New York: Penguin, 2003)
l Leakage: Easterly, , pp. 145-148.
l Recipient countries: “Data on Poverty: Social Indicators,” World Bank, August 2, 2002, from its website @ www.worldbank.org/poverty/data/trends/mort.htm Also, “Population Size and Growth,” Figure 3, “Average Annual Rates of Population Growth of World Regions: 1950-2020,” U.S. Census Bureau, from its website @ www.census.gov/ipc/prod/wp96/wp96005.pdf
l Food production and calories: “Crop Scientists Seek a New Revolution,” by Charles C. Mann, Science, January 15, 1999, Vol. 283, No. 5400, p. 310.
l East Asian income increase: “The Poverty of Nations,” by Martin Wolf, Financial Times, August 20, 1996, p. 12.
l Poverty in China and India: “Global Poverty Monitoring,” World Bank, from its website @ www.worldbank.org/research/povmonitor/
CHAPTER FORTY TWO
Twin Tracks to Tomorrow
l Astronaut: "Shenzhou Soars," by Craig Covault, Aviation Week & Space Technology, October 20, 2003, Vol. 159, No. 16, p. 22.
l Biotech in China, Beijing Genomics Center: "China's Biotech Is Starting To Bloom," by David Stipp, Fortune, September 2, 2002, p. 126.
l China's mobile phone subscribers:
“l China’s Internet users:
lTechnical standards: “Fast Gaining in Technology, China Poses Trade Worries,” by Steve Lohr, New York Times, January 13, 2004, Section C, p. 1.
l Stem cell research in China: “An Embryonic Nation,” by Xiangzhong Yang, Nature, March 11, 2004, from its website @ www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v428/n6979/full/428210a_fs.html
l Dalian: “Doing Our Homework,” by Thomas L. Friedman, New York Times, June 24, 2004, Section A, p. 23.
l Science and engineering degrees: “High Tech in China,” by Bruce Einhorn, with Ben Elgin, Cliff Edwards, Linda Himelstein and Otis Port, Business Week, October 28, 2004, p. 80.
l Scientists return home: "China Tries to Woo Its Tech Talent Back Home," by Rone Tempest, Los Angeles Times, November 25, 2002, Part 2, p. 1. Also, "Biotech's Yin and Yang," The Economist, December 14, 2002.
l R&D labs: "Let a Thousand Ideas Flower," by Chris Buckley, New York Times, September 13, 2004, Section C, p. 1.
l China's problems and anti-poverty programs: "Transition of China's Northeast: The Need for Combining Regional and National Policies," by Francois Bourguignon, in remarks at the seminar "A Development Strategy for Northeast China," held December 3-4, 2003 in Shenyang, China, from the World Bank website @ www.worldbank.org.cn/English/content/fb-shenyang.pdf
l Poorest Chinese:
l Kalam’s background: “The Political Ascent of an Indian Missile Man,” by Pallava Bagla, Science, July 26, 2002, Vol. 297, No. 5581, p. 503.
l : Kalam,
l India lags behind China: “China Key to Our Fortunes,” by Geoffrey Newman, The Australian, May 7, 2004, p. 4.
l utsourcing income: "India's Software Exports at $12.5 Billion Despite Outsourcing Backlash," by S. Srinivasan, Associated Press, June 3, 2004.
l Outsourcing’s reverse effect: “Indian City Rides Tech Euphoria,” by David Streitfeld, Los Angeles Times, June 30, 2004, Part A, p. 1.
l Chief Minister: "Interview: Buddhadeb Bhattacherjee," by Joanna Slater, Far Eastern Economic Review, April 28, 2004, p. 38.
l Calcutta and IBM: "Calcutta On a Roll," by Joanna Slater, Far Eastern Economic Review, April 28, 2004, p. 36.
lKarnataka: “The Digital Village,” by Manjeet Kripalani, Business Week, June 28, 2004, p. 60.
l kiosks: “Plan to Connect Rural India to the Internet,” by John Markoff, New York Times, June 16, 2005, Section C, p. 17.
l India’s space program, tele-linked clinics, Space Research Organization: “Technology for the People: A Future in the Making,” by Dinesh C. Sharma, Futures, August/September 2004, Vol. 36, Nos. 6-7, pp. 734, 740.
l Biotech in India: "Biotechnology: India Emerging as a Partner of Choice," by K.T. Jagannathan, The Hindu, June 9, 2004. Also, "Biotech: India Right on Track," Financial Express, June 9, 2004.
l Top biotech investor: "Singapore is Asia's Top Investor in Biotech Sector," Asia Pacific Business, citing a report in the June, 2002, issue of Asia Private Equity Review. Vol. 6, No. 10, from the website @ www.asiabiotech.com.sg/readmore/vol06/0615/singapore.html
lMalaysia 2020: "Malaysian Premier Mahathir Maintains 2020 Vision," Agence France Presse, January 10, 2000.
l Companies in Malaysia: “Malaysian Cybercity a Go,” Reuters, July 8, 1999, from the Wired website @ www.wired.com/news/business/0,1367,20628,00.html
l Malaysia's changing exports: "Background on Malaysia," U.S. Department of State, Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, August, 2004, from its website @ www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2777.htm. A personal note is due here: Mahathir was a visionary leader, and I -- along with a long list of others, including Bill Gates, Larry Ellison, Kenichi Ohmae and Masayoshi Son -- had been asked to serve on the international advisory board of the Malaysian Multi-Media Super-Corridor, an attempt to create a alaysian Silicon Valley. But Mahathir was not above jailing his own former protege and hand-picked deputy prime minister, Anwar Ibrahim, when the two fell out over how to cope with corruption, the 1997-98 economic crisis and control of UMNO, the political coalition that put them both in office. Thrown in prison with Anwar was his speech writer, Munawar Anees, who earlier had introduced me to both Anwar and Mahathir. Anwar and Anees were both physically abused in prison. On learning of the arrests, I immediately faxed Mahathir, calling for their release, exchanged correspondence with him, and, in October 1998, wrote a column in their defense for the International Herald Tribune. -- Alvin Toffler
l South Korea’s Kim Dae-jung: “Asia’s Rising Star: Nanotech,” by Jayanthi Iyengar, Asia Times, April 21, 2004, from its website @ http://atimes01.atimes.com/atimes/Asian_Economy/FD21Dk01.html
l Abdullah: "Jordan's King Lays Cornerstone for School Modeled After Deerfield Academy," by Fadi Khalil, Associated Press, July 22, 2004.
l AIDS deaths: "AIDS Epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa" and "AIDS Epidemic in Asia," United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, from the UNAIDS 2004 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic @ www.unaids.org/bangkok2004/factsheets.html
CHAPTER FORTY THREE
Cracking Poverty's Core
l Moore: "The Promise of Food Security," by David Lague, Far Eastern Economic Review, April 4, 2002, p. 34.
l Nutrients, pesticides, arid and cold, higher yields: "21st Century Agriculture: A Critical Role for Science and Technology," U.S. Department of Agriculture, June, 2003, from its @ www.usda.gov/news/pdf/agst21stcentury.pdf
l Fertilizer: “Debate Grows Over Biotech Food,” by Justin Gillis, Washington Post, November 30, 2003, p. A1.
l Drought-resistant: “Can Bio-Crops Really End World Hunger?” by Margarette Driscoll, Sunday Times of London, June 20, 2003.
l Lower costs: "An Environmental-Economic Assessment of Genetic Modification of Agricultural Crops," by J.C.J.M. van den Berg and J.M. Holley, Futures, November/December, 2002, Vol. 34, Nos. 9 and 10.
l GM crops today: “Narrow Path for New Biotech Food Crops,” by Andrew Pollack, New York Times, May 20, 2004, Section C, p. 1.
l India DBT, cholera and rabies: “Technologies for the People: A Future in the Making,” by Dinesh C. Sharma, Futures, August/September 2004, Vol. 36, Nos. 6-7, p. 741.
l Poor-world crops: “New GM Crops Research Project on the Anvil,” Press Trust of India, December 18, 2003.
lChina and Monsanto, soybean imports: "China Urged to Step Up GM Efforts," by Jia Hepeng, Science and Development Network, March 5, 2004, from its website @ www.scidev.net/dossiers/index.cfm?fuseaction=dossierReadItem&type=1&itemid=1264&language=1&dossier=6
l China’s agriculture biotech: “Plant Biotechnology in China,” by Jikun Huang, Scott Rozelle, Carl Pray and Qinfang Wang, Science, January 25, 2002, p. 674.
l Fuzzy factors: "Super Organics," by Richard Manning, Wired, May, 2004, from its website @ www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.05/food.html Manning is author of Against the Grain: How Agriculture Has Hijacked Civilization (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2004)
l Hepatitis B deaths: "WHO Calls for More International Aid to Pay for Vaccination Programmes," Pharmaceutical Journal, November 23, 2002, Vol. 269, No. 7225, p. 733.
l Hepatitus B carriers: “General Information,” from the Hepatitus B Foundation website @ www.hepb.org/05-0230.hepb
l Vaccine costs, Cornell: "Food for the Future," by Gregg Easterbrook, New York Times, "November 19, 1999, Section A, p. 35.
l Tomatoes: "Transgenic Plants for the Future," Colorado State University's Agronomy News, Autumn, 2001, Vol. 21, Issue 5, from its website @ www.colostate.edu/Depts/SoilCrop/extension/Newsletters/2001/guAutumn01.htm
l Potatoes: "The Push for Edible Vaccines," by Rob Wherry, Forbes, January 20, 2003, p. 110.
l Golden rice: "How Science Can Save the World's Poor," by Dick Taverne, London Guardian, March 3, 2004, p. 24.
l Diarrhea: "Biotech Crops As 'Health Food?' " by Wyatt Andrews, CBS News, October 9, 2000, from its website @ www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/01/31/health/main326711.shtml
l Cystic fibrosis: “Feed Corn, Meet ‘Pharma’ Corn,” by Rachel Brand, Rocky Mountain News, March 13, 2004, p. 1C.
l Custom seeds: "Technology Grows Many Seed Options," by Anne Fitzgerald, Des Moines Register, June 6, 2004, p. 1M.
l Agriculture, genes and petroleum, 280 million tons: "From Petro to Agro: Seeds of a New Economy," by Robert E. Armstrong, Defense Horizons, October, 2002, pp. 1,2.
l Age of Oil: ARCO Chairman and CEO Michael Bowlin, quoted in , p. 1.
Current biomass uses: “Vision for Bioenergy and Biomass Products in the United States,” U.S. Department of Energy, October, 2002, from its website @ www.eere.energy.gov/biomass/publications.html?print
l Satellites: “Lost? Hiding? Your Cellphone is Keeping Tabs,” by Amy Harmon, New York Times, December 21, 2003, Section 1, p. 1.
l Reduce water needs: National Research Council, Biobased Industrial Products: Priorities for Research and Commercialization, (Washington: National Academy Press, 1999), cited in Defense Horizons, "From Petro to Agro: Seeds of a New Economy," p. 4.
l Wang Shiwu: “Internet Changes Chinese Farmers’ Life,” Xinhua News Agency, June 9, 2001.
l Chinese villages online: “41% of Villages in China Connected to Internet,” Xinhua News Agency, June 15, 2004.
l Joshi: "Transforming Agri-Business the E-Way," by Meera Shenoy, Business India, June 24, 2002.
l e-Choupal operations: “What Works: ITC’s E-Choupal and Profitable Rural Transformation,” by Kuttayan Annamalai and Sachin Rao, World Resources Institute, August, 2003, from its website @ http://povertyprofit.wri.org/pdfs/echoupal_case.pdf
l Dolly: “Dolly the Sheep Dies Young.” British Broadcasting Corp., February 14, 2003, from its @ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2764039.stm
l Dead cow: "University of Georgia Clones Calf from Dead Animal," by Rebecca McCarthy, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, April 26, 2002.
l Water purifier: "Inventors Develop James Bond Gadgets for War," by Kristel Halter, Columbia University News Service, February 16, 2004, from its website @ www.jrn.columbia.edu/studentwork/cns/2004-02-16/516.asp
l Crop sensors: "Psst. This Is Your Sensor. Your Grapes Are Thirsty," by Barnaby J. Feder, New York Times, July 26, 2004, Section C, p. 2.
l Tissue sensors, nano-monitors, airborne spores, magnetics: "A Compendium of DARPA Programs, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, a division of the U.S. Defense Department, April, 2002, pp. 13, 55, 58, 60, from its website @ www.darpa.mil/body/newsitems/darpa_fact.html
l "Let's Get Real": " 'Going to Scale' and the Social Benefit Entrepreneur," by Patrick Guerra and James L. Koch, STS Nexus, Fall, 2003, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 7.
l Gates: “Gates Rejects Idea of E-Utopia,” by Dan Richman, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, October 19, 2000, p. A1.
l Rural electricity: "World Energy Outlook 2002: Energy and Poverty," International Energy Agency, Chapter 13, p. 5.
l eactor construction: “Nuclear Plants to Ease Power Shortages,” China People's Daily, May 26, 2004, from its website @ http://english.people.com.cn/200405/26/eng20040526_144420.html
l Three Gorges: “After Years of Weighing Pros and Cons, China is Now All for Nuclear Energy,” by Peter Harmsen, Agence France Presse, July 29, 2004.
l Rural electricity in India: "Full Rural Electrification Only by 2012," Winrock International India, reporting on Planning Commission Working Group conclusions to the Power Ministry regarding the country's 10th Plan (2002-2007), June, 2002, from the website @ www.renewingindia.org/news1/news_archive/jun/news1_june_ruralelec.html
CHAPTER FORTY FOUR
China’s Next Surprise?
l U.S. trade, Asia’s influence: "American Must Not Leave Asia in a Trade Blind Spot," by Max Baucus, Financial Times, December 13, 2004, p. 17.
l Third-largest trader: “China Surpasses Japan to Become the World’s Third-Largest Trader,” by Chi Hung Kwan, Japan’s Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry, March 23, 2004, from its website @ www.rieti.go.jp/en/china/04032301.html
l China’s foreign reserves: “The Mainland is No Longer Cheering the Influx of Foreign Funds,” by Mark O’Neill, South China Morning Post, November 10, 2004, p. 14.
l World’s reserves: “Is the Dollar’s Role as the World’s Reserve Currency Drawing to a Close?” The Economist, November 23, 2004.
l U.S. Treasuries: “Treasuries Fall on Report China Cuts Back on U.S. Debt Holdings,” Bloomberg News Service, November 26, 2004, from its website @ http://quote.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000006&sid=a747P240y4uU&refer=home
l Catch up with West: “Zhao Urges ‘Revolution’ for Economy as China Tries to Catch Up with the West,” by Daniel Southerland of the Washington Post, published in the Toronto Star, October 26, 1987, p. A1.
lCompetitive speed: "The China Price," by Pete Engardio and Dexter Roberts, Business Week, December 6, 2004, p. 102.
l : “Beyond the Mainland: Chinese Telecommunications Expansion,” by Robert C. Fonow, Defense Horizons, July, 2003, No. 29, pp. 2-3.
lChange in China. Stille, “Can the Past and the Future Coexist?”, Vol. 8, No. 3, Winter, 2004, pp. 439-444.
l Asia trade zone: "East Asia Nations Make Headway in Trade Talks," People’s Daily, July 21, 2003, from its website @ http://english.people.com.cn/200307/21/eng20030721_120717.shtml
l Cheap Chinese goods: (Mexico) “Mexico Losing NAFTA Advantage,” by John Lyons, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, November 27, 2003, p. D1. (Colombia) “Latin American Countries Lose Business, and Jobs, As a Huge Wave of Low-Cost Goods Floods Markets,” Miami Herald, December 7, 2003, p. L1. (Indonesia) “More Risks Ahead for Textile Industry,” by Bill Guerin, Asia Times, 2004, from its website @ www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/FH03A304.html
l Lenovo: "Big Blue's Bold Step Into China," by Steve Hamm, with Pete Engardio and Frederik Balfour, Business Week, December 9, 2004.
l Huawei: “Huawei: More Than A Local Hero,” by Bruce Einhorn, Business Week, October 11, 2004, p. 180.
l China’s foreign businesses: “China’s Outward Investments Hit $33.4 Billion by End of 2003,” Japan Economic Newswire, citing a report from China’s Ministry of Commerce and National Bureau of Statistics, September 7, 2004.
l China's FDI: "Outward FDI Tops US$33bn," by Olivia Chung, Hong Kong Standard, October 7, 2004, from its website @ www.thestandard.com.hk/stdn/std/China/FJ07Ad01.html
l South American investments: "Beijing Bolsters Economic Ties With Eager Latin America," by Gary Marx, Chicago Tribune, December 20, 2004, p. 4.
l Taiwan's U.S. support, Beijing’s threat of force: "Dangerous Straits," by Melinda Liu, Newsweek, June 28, 2004, p. 32.
lilitary budget: "FY 2004 Report to Congress on PRC Military Power," U.S. Department of Defense, from its website @ www.dod.gov/pubs/d20040528PRC.pdf
l China’s military capacities: "China Reshaping Military to Toughen Its Muscle in the Region," by Craig S. Smith, New York Times, October 16, 2002, Section 1, p. 12. Also, “Unmanned Tactical Aircraft; China is Pursuing,” by Roxana Tiron, National Defense, May 1, 2004, Vol. 88, No. 606, p. 34.
l Nuclear missiles: "US Missiles: China's View," by James Miles, British Broadcasting Corp., July 6, 2000, from its website @ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/822277.stm
l R&D spending in China: "20% R&D Expenditure Increase in 1002," Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, October 20, 2004, from its website @ www.most.gov.cn/English/newletter/q382.htm
l U.S. R&D: "R&D Budget and Policy Program," Table I-11, American Association for the Advancement of Science, citing data from the National Science Foundation, 2004, from the website @ www.aaas.org/spp/rd/guitotal.htm
l Von Zedtwitz: “Let a Thousand Ideas Flower: China is a New Hotbed of Research,” by Chris Buckley, New York Times, September 13, 2004, Section C, p. 1.
l Technology transfer: “U.S. Commercial Technology Transfers to the People’s Republic of China,” U.S. Bureau of Export Administration, 1999, www.bis.doc.gov/defenseindustrialbaseprograms/OSIES/DefMarketResearchRpts/techtransfer2prc.html
l MBA programs: “But Can You Teach It?” The Economist, Special Report, May 22, 2004.
l MBA partners: "Your Guide to MBA and EMBA Courses on the Mainland," South China Morning Post, November 6, 2004, p. 50.
l Foreigners in China: "Foreigners Living in South China's Shenzhen Increasing," People’s Daily, December 4, 2001, from its website @ http://english.people.com.cn/200112/06/eng20011206_86062.shtml
l Most pessimistic: Table of contents in Chang, Gordon G. The Coming Collapse of China (New York: Random House, 2001)
l Mao’s China, peasants and industrialization: “Sharing Economic Fruits with 900 Million Farmers,” by Qiao Tianbi, China Today, May, 2005, p. 14.
l "City-first" policy, Sichuan strike, China’s dilemma: "In China, Stresses Spill Over Into Riots," by Robert Marquand, Christian Science Monitor, November 22, 2004, p. 1.
l Chinese peasants: “Exercising Government Power in the Interests of the People,” Xinhua News Service, October 6, 2004.
l Land losses: “Farmers Being Moved Aside by China’s Real Estate Boom,” by Jim Yardley, New York Times, December 8, 2004, Section A, p. 1.
l Enclosure Acts: Porter, Roy. The Creation of the Modern World (New York: W.W. Norton, p.306, 308-9. Also “Agricultural Enclosures: The Major Phase, 1760 Onwards,” Literary Encyclopedia, from its website @ www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=1472
l Two-class system: “Amid China’s Boom, No Helping Hand for Young Qingming,” by Joseph Kahn and Jim Yardley, New York Times, August 1, 2004, Section 1, p. 1.
l Peasants financing urban boom: “China’s Strength Begins at Home,” by Yasheng Huang, Financial Times, June 2, 2005.
l Protest issues: “China Crushes Peasant Protest, Turning 3 Friends Into Enemies,” by Joseph Kahn, New York Times, October 13, 2004, Section A, p. 1.
l Other rallies and strikes: "Repression in China Worsens Workers Protests," Human Rights Watch, August 2, 2002, from its website @ www.hrw.org/press/2002/08/china080202.htm
l PLA and infowar: “Like Adding Wings to the Tiger: Chinese Information War Theory and Practice,” by Timothy L. Thomas, also citing Wei Jincheng, “New Form of People’s Warfare,” and Wang Xiaodong, “Special Means of Warfare in the Information Age: Strategic Information Warfare,” Foreign Military Studies Office, 2000, from its website @ http://fmso.leavenworth.army.mil/fmsopubs/issues/chinaiw.htm
l Falun Gong: Schechter, Danny, Falun Gong’s Challenge to China (New York: Akashic Books, 2001) Regarding demons, “Faithful Follow Falun Gong," by Brian Jackson, Chicago Sun-Times, February 27, 2000, p. 33.
l Mao’s peasant revolution: Solomon, pp. 190-198, 213-214.
l Christianity: “China Opens Door to Christianity – Of a Patriotic Sort,” by Robert Marquand, Christian Science Monitor, March 8, 2004, p. 1.
l Countryside cults: "Violence Taints Religion's Solace for China's Poor," by Joseph Kahn, New York Times, November 25, 2004, Section A, p. 1.
l Taiping Rebellion: Spence, , 1990) pp. 170-178.
l Great Leap and Cultural Revolution: “The Inhuman Touch,” by Richard McGregor, Financial Times, reviewing Mao: The Unknown Story by Jung Chang and Jon Halliday (New York: Knopf, 2005), June 18, 2005, Book Review p. 29.
l Fixed-asset investments: “Implication of Opening Up China Economic Development,” Table 1: “Share of China’s FDI in Fixed Asset Investment, 1992-2002,” by Zhang Xiaoji, Research and Information System for the Non-Aligned and Other Developing Nations, from its website @ www.ris.org.in/DRC_Report.pdf
l Muslim Northwest: “One Nation – Divided,” by Matthew Forney with Mark Thompson, Time International, March 25, 2002, p. 38.
CHAPTER FORTY FIVE
Japan’s Bamboo Ring
l Ikeda: “Will Fatal Flaws Eventually Doom the Alliance?” by Michael Hirsh, Associated Press, January 5, 1992.
l Crash contradictions: Ohmae, pp. 12-15.
l Property prices: "The Measure of One's Worth: Real Estate," by John Dodd, Japan Inc., December, 2003, from its website @ www.japaninc.net/article.php?articleID=1247
l Non-performing loans, shrinking factory output, exports: “Japan’s Phoenix Economy,” by Richard Katz, Foreign Affairs, January/February, 2003, p. 114.
l Japan at forefront: (Fuel cells) "Fuel-Cell Nation," by Irene M. Kunii, Business Week, October 6, 2003, p. 26. (Alternative energy) "Japan: Environmental Issue," U.S. Department of Energy, January, 2004, from its website @ www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/japanenv.html (Digital electronics) "Japan's Sun Rises Again," by Michael Kanellos, CNET News, December 6, 2004, from its website @ http://ecoustics-cnet.com.com/Japans+tech+industry+banks+on+cool+factor/2009-1041_3-5471753.html?tag=jp.toc (Robots) "Making Robots More Like People," by Byron Spice, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 18, 2001, p. A8. (Artificial blood) "Artificial Blood Ready for Testing in People," by Leo Lewis, Times of London, May 15, 2004, p. 11. (Glycobiology) "The History of Glycobiology in Japan," by Akira Kobata, Glycobiology, May 25, 2001, Vol. 11, No. 8. (Gaming devices) "Sony Ready to Battle Nintendo in Game Arena," by Levi Buchanan, Chicago Tribune, January 6, 2005, p. C1.
l Japan and nanotech: "Japan's Sun Rises Again," by Michael Kanellos, citing the National Science Foundation, CNET News, December 6, 2004, from its website @ http://ecoustics-cnet.com.com/Japans+tech+industry+banks+on+cool+factor/2009-1041_3-5471753.html?tag=jp.toc
l Services imports: “Services Balances,” Keizai Koho Center, the Japan Institute for Social and Economic Affairs, citing data from the Bank of Japan, from its website @ www.kkc-usa.org/index.cfm/2487
l : “Dead Firms Walking – Japan’s Service Economy,” The Economist, Special Report, September 25, 2004.
l Lifetime employment: Fingleton, pp. 204-212.
l Keiretsu system: Holstein, pp. 199-208.
l Keiretsus on decline: “Keiretsu Dynasties Give Way,” by Michael Kanellos, CNET News, December 7, 2004, from its website @ http://news.com.com/Keiretsu+dynasties+give+way+to+global+changes/2009-1041_3-5471874.html
l Mitsubishi: “Mitsubishi Moves to Reinstate Closed Supplier Group,” by James B. Treece, Automotive News, October 18, 2004, p. 6.
l Venture capital, loans: "The Challenge of Entrepreneurship in a Developed Economy: The Problematic Case of Japan," by Marilyn M. Helms, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneuring, December 1, 2003, Vol. 8, No. 3, p. 247.
l Keidanren: "Rakuten Allowed to Join Keidanren," Japan Times, November 17, 2004.
l Entrepreneurs: “Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 2000,” by Paul D. Reynolds, S. Michael Camp, William D. Bygrave and Erkko Autio, cited in “From Keiretsu to Startups: Japan’s Push for High Tech Entrepreneurship,” by Henry S. Rowen and A. Maria Toyoda, Asia/Pacific Research Center, October, 2002, p. 9.
l Lack of new products: “From Keiretsu to Startups: Japan’s Push for High Tech Entrepreneurship,” by Henry S. Rowen and A. Maria Toyoda.
l Joint enterprises, university startups, annual new businesses: “VC Funding Gets Scholarly,” Red Herring, also citing Nikkei Weekly, December 15, 2004, from its website @ www.redherring.com/Article.aspx?a=11047&hed=VC+funding+gets+scholarly§or=Capital&subsector=VentureCapital
l Silicon Valley and universities: "The Heart of Silicon Valley," by James Aley, Fortune, July 7, 1997, p. 66.
l Division of labor by gender, women in management: “Lifting Women’s Job Status,” by Hiroku Hanai, Japan Times, July 26, 2004.
l Unmarried rate, Christmas cakes: “Japanese Women Staying Single by Droves as Gender Schism Grows in Nation’s Culture,” by Yuri Kageyama, Associated Press, November 15, 2004.
l Fewer babies, City of Ota: “Fathers Will Be Forced to Mind Baby,” by Leo Lewis, Times of London, December 3, 2004.
l Women in workforce: "Statistical Handbook of Japan: The Labor Force," Statistics Bureau of Japan's Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, from its website @ www.stat.go.jp/english/data/handbook/c12cont.htm
l Women’s earned income. “Human Development Indicators – 2004,” Table 25, United Nations Development Program, from its website @ http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/pdf/hdr04_table_25.pdf
l Mandatory retirement age: "Mandatory Retirement," Japan Aging Research Center, from its website @ www.jarc.net/aging/04dec/page2.shtml
l Life expectancy in Japan, healthy elderly: “Old, But Not Retiring,” by Anthony Faiola, Washington Post, October 27, 2004, p. A1.
l Oldest population: “The Dilemma Posed by Japan’s Population Decline,” by Julian Chapple, Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies, October 18, 2004, from its website @ www.japanesestudies.org.uk/discussionpapers/Chapple.html
l American retirees, Mexico: “Retiring Abroad a Tantalizing Dream for Boomers,” by Dave Carpenter, Associated Press, July 30, 2002.
l Guadalajara rentals: "La Vida Cheapo," by Bary Golson, AARP, March/April, 2004, from its website @ www.aarpmagazine.org/travel/Articles/a2004-01-21-mag-mexico.html
l British retirees abroad: “More Retirees Will Quit UK to Live Abroad,” by Nicky Burridge, citing a report carried out with the Centre of Future Studies, Press Association, November 17, 2003.
Akira Nihei and his wife: “A Retirement Home in the Sun Begins to Appeal to Japanese,” by Miki Tanikawa, International Herald Tribune, May 29, 2004, Special Report, p. 15.
l Japanese investment in China: "Foreign Direct Investment," Japan’s Ministry of Finance, from its website @ www.mof.go.jp/english/e1c008.htm
l China’s exports to Japan, share: “Japanese Capital and Jobs Flowing to China,” by Ken Belson, New York Times, February 17, 2004, Section C, p. 1.
l Companies in China: (GM) “Our Plants: China,” www.gm.com/company/gmability/environment/plants/plant_list/plant_db/asia-pacific/china.html (Intel, Anheuser-Busch) “Foreign Investments in China,” U.S. China Business Council, 2004, from its website @ www.uschina.org/statistics/fdi_2004.html (BMW, Siemens, BASF) “Foreign Direct Investments in China – Good Prospects for German Companies?” Deutsche Bank Research, August 24, 2004
CHAPTER FORTY SIX
Europe’s Lost Message
lTrade since 1985: “U.S. Aggregate Foreign Trade Data, 2003 & Prior Years,” U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, from its website @ www.ita.doc.gov/td/industry/otea/usfth/
lEU import restrictions: (GM foods, bananas) "Euro Clash," by Tim Reason, CFO, May, 2004. (Honey, roller skates, nuclear reactors) “EU Opens New Front in Trade War,” British Broadcasting Corp., March 1, 2004, from its website @ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3521731.stm
lMicrosoft, merger, duties, all-time low: "Euro Clash," by Tim Reason, CFO.
l Arms sales ban: “House Urges EU to Maintain Arms Embargo,” by Jim Abrams, Associated Press, February 2, 2005.
l Europe’s advanced sectors: (Mobile phones) “Mobile Cellular Subscribers Per 100 People, 2003,” International Telecommunication Union, www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/at_glance/cellular03.pdf (Airbus) " (Grid computing) “Europe Exceeds U.S. in Refining Grid Computing,” by John Markoff and Jennifer L. Schenker, New York Times, November 10, 2003, Section C, p. 1. (Satellite launches) “Arianespace at Europe’s Spaceport,” European Space Agency, May 12, 2004, www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Launchers_Europe_s_Spaceport/ASE7EOI4HNC_0.htm(GPS) "Europe's New Air War," by Oliver Morton. August, 2002, Wired, www.wired.com/wired/archive/10.08/airwar.html
lBerners-Lee, more time and energy: "Playing to Win," by Viktor Mayer-Schoenberger, The Parliament, reprinted November 17, 2003, www.ksg.harvard.edu/news/opeds/2003/mayer_schoenberger_playing_win_pm_1103.htm
lTorvalds: “Tech’s Great Inventor? Europe,” by David Kirkpatrick, Fortune, July 9, 2001, p. 132.
lSaturn's moon: "Landing on Titan Triumph for US and Europe," by Clive Cookson, Financial Times, January 15, 2005, p. 3.
lEU harmonizing (Taxes) “EU Law + Policy Overview: Value Added Tax,” European Union, from its website @ http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2003/l_066/l_06620030311en00260035.pdf (Motorcycles) “Ban on Big Motorcycles for Younger Novice Riders,” by Ben Webster, Times of London, January 27, 2005. (Resumes) “Defining a Standard in Resumes,” by Thomas Fuller, International Herald Tribune, December 1, 2004, p. 11. (Cosmetics) “Directive 2003/15/EC,” European Parliament and EU Council, February 27, 2003, from the EU website @ http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2003/l_066/l_06620030311en00260035.pdf
lMost stringent: "Europe's Merger Directive," The Economist, December 4, 2004.
Pact violators: "Accepting Reality, EU Plans Change," by Graham Bowley, International Herald Tribune, September 3, 2004, p. 1.
lEU constitution vote: “In Europe, Opportunity Knocks,” by Carol Matlack, Business Week, June 2, 2005.
lLonger vacations: “Europe Reluctantly Deciding It Has Less Time for Time Off,” by Mark Landler, New York Times, July 7, 2004, Section 1, p. 1.
l Shorter work week: “EU Head Office Says Delays in Economic Reforms Harm Growth,” by Paul Geitner, Associated Press, January 14, 2003.
l Slow Food origin, : “Slower Progress: A Protest Against Fast Food in Italy Has Now Developed Into a European Campaign to Keep the Quality of Small-Town Life,” by Chris Arnot, London Guardian, January 2, 2002, p. 9.
l Slow Food membership and events: “The Movement,” from the Slow Food website @ www.slowfood.com/eng/sf_ita_mondo/sf_ita_mondo.lasso
l Slow Agincourt: "Here Come the Brits," by William Underhill, Newsweek, November 13, 2003, P. 31.
l Slow setting up a business: "More 'Thinking Small' Policies Needed to Help SMEs," European Comission, May 27, 2002, from its website @ http://dbs.cordis.lu/fep-cgi/srchidadb?ACTION=D&SESSION=148082005-1-28&DOC=1&TBL=EN_NEWS&RCN=EN_RCN_ID:18447&CALLER=EN_NEWS
lSlow patents: "Coping With a Climate of Uncertainty," by Nigel Page, Financial Times, June 21, 2001, Survey - FT Director, p. 2.
lSlow transactions in Europe: Interview with the authors, January, 2005.
lDefense industries and rapid-reaction force: “US Pullout Puts Pressure on Europe’s Defence Plans,” by Michael Thurston, Agence France Presse, August 17, 2004.
lHeartland: “The Geographical Pivot of History,” by Halford J. Mackinder, as published in The World of General Haushofer, by Andreas Dorpalen (Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1942) p. 185.
lEU as transnational organization: “The Great Powers of Europe, Redefined,” by Timothy Garton Ash, New York Times, December 17, 2004, Section A, p. 35.
lLand masses: (EU) “European Union Data,” U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Foreign Agriculture Service, October 23, 2003, from its website @ www.fas.usda.gov/dlp/circular/2004/04-10LP/EUDataNotes.html (All others) World Almanac 2004 (New York: World Almanac Books, 2004)
lRussia and Comparative GDPs: (EU and U.S.) "Country Analysis Briefs: European Union," Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, January, 2005, from its website @ www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/euro.html (All others) World Factbook, 2004, from its website @ http://TheWorldFactbook.info
lSmall countries flourish: "Software Exports in 2003," Central Bank of Iceland, June 8, 2004, from its website @ www.sedlabanki.is/uploads/files/Software%20exports.pdf The same point was made at an earlier stage of the EU by former leader of British Labour Party Hugh Gaitskell who, in contrast with bigger-is-better claims, noted that “some of Europe’s most successful economies belonged to smaller countries, such as Switzerland and Sweden, which did not have large home markets.” Booker, Christopher and North, Richard, The Great Deception (London: Continuum, 2004).
l EU high-tech in 1997-98, top 10 IT companies: “The Diffusion of Information Technology in Europe,” by Harald Gruber, EIB Papers, a publication of the European Investment Bank, 2001, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 151-163.
lSoftware firms: “Europe’s Companies Dwindle in Number, Size and Revenues,” by Maija Pesola, Financial Times, April 6, 2005, p. 3.
l Lisbon goal: “EU Leaders Agree to Sweeping Reforms,” by Brian Groom and Peter Norman, Financial Times, March 25, 2000, p. 1.
lLiving standards: "Competitiveness Report 2001," European Commission, http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/library/enterprise-europe/issue6/articles/en/enterprise04_en.htm
l Europe and biotech miss boat?: "Navigating the Doldrums," by Ted Agres, The Scientist, May 12, 2003, from the BioMed Central website @ www.biomedcentral.com/news/20030512/01/
lNanotech gap widening: "Creating New Knowledge in Nanotechnology and Turning It into Better Quality of Life, Competitiveness and Jobs," European Commission, May 12, 2004, from its website @ http://europa.eu.int/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/04/639&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
lEuropean innovation lags: "Enterprise Europe 15: Innovation," European Commission, April-June, 2004, from its website @ http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/library/enterprise-europe/issue15/articles/en/topic5.htm
lSchroeder on “unrealistic : “Schroeder to Urge Economic Rethink for Europe,” by Bertrand Benoit and George Parker, Financial Times, November 4, 2004, p. 11.
lProdi on big failure: “Schroeder Sets Out Seven Ways to Stronger EU Internal Market,” Agence France Presse, October 26, 2004.
l: “EU Economy ‘At Same Level as US in Late 1970s’,” by Tobias Buck, Financial Times, March 11, 2005, p. 8.
lLeading industrial power: Todd, Emmanuel, After the Empire: The Breakdown of the American Order (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003). p. 146.
l Unemployment rates: “Little Sign of New Jobs Created in Europe,” Associated Press, September 1, 2004.
l Muslims in Europe. "Special Report: Struggle for the Soul of Islam," by Evan Osnos, Chicago Tribune, December 19, 2004, p. C1. The issue has intensified since the terrorist attacks in Madrid and London.
lCzech graduates: “Czech Republic,” fDI, January 5, 2004, from its website @ www.fdimagazine.com/news/categoryfront.php/id126/Czech_Republic.html
lHi-tech firms in Czech Republic: “Planning an Investment in Strategic Services,” PriceWaterhouseCoopers, April, 2004, from its website @ www.pwcglobal.com/cz/eng/ins-sol/issues/StrategicServices_DR.html
lSlovenia: "Slovenia," fDI, January 5, 2004, from its website @ www.fdimagazine.com/news/categoryfront.php/id/138/Slovenia.html
lHungary and Nokia, Exxon: “Outsourcing Debate Flairs in Europe as Jobs Flow Eastward,” by Paul Geitner, Associated Press, May 17, 2004.
l Hungary's high-tech exports: "EU Spent Nearly 2% of GDP on Research and Development," Eurostat, February 25, 2004, from the EU website @ http://europa.eu.int/comm/eurostat/Public/datashop/print-product/EN?catalogue=Eurostat&product=9-25022004-EN-AP-EN&type=pdf
CHAPTER FORTY SEVEN
l America’s evolution: Dominique Moisi quoted “In American in Paris,” by Thomas L. Friedman, New York Times, January 20, 2005, Section A, p. 23.
l Old elites: “The Defeat of the Elite,” by Walter Wriston, Forbes, December 1, 1997, p. 156.
l U.S. energy delivery: “National Energy Policy - America’s Energy Infrastructure: A Comprehensive Delivery System,” U.S. Department of Energy, 2001, pp. 7-5, 7-9.
l Four million miles: Federal Highway Administration. “Public Road Length – 2003,” Federal Highway Administration, from its website @ www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/ohim/hs03/htm/hm12.htm
l Trucks and companies: “American Trucking Trends 2003,” American Trucking Associations, posted on the American Transportation Research Institute website @ www.atri-online.org/industry/
l Volume of transported goods: “Truckers Needed to Keep Economy Rolling,” by Barbara Hagenbaugh, USA Today, October 12, 2004, p. B1.
l Trucking revenues: “American Trucking Trends 2003,” American Trucking Associations, citing statistics from a Freight Transportation Forecast produced by Global Insight for the ATA.
l Share of GDP: “U.S. Department of Transportation Adopts New UAlbany Economic Index,” State University of New York, March 10, 2004, from its website @ www.albany.edu/news/releases/2004/mar2004/lahiri_tsi.htm
l America’s commuters: “Journey to Work: 2000,” U.S. Census Bureau, March, 2004, pp. 3, 5.
l Intelligent transportation potentials: “Notes From the Field,” by Tod Newcombe, Government Technology, June, 1998, from its website @ www.govtech.net/magazine/gt/1998/june/notes/notes.php
l Clinton’s highway bill: “Clinton Signs $203 Billion Highway Bill,” CNN, June 9, 1998, from its website @ www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1998/06/09/highway/
l allocation: “Federal Funding for ITS Programs,” a table in the article “The Smart Highway: Still a Less Traveled Road,” by Tod Newcombe, Government Technology, June, 2000, from its website @ www.govtech.net/magazine/gt/2000/june/highway.php
l Superhighway: “New Push for Info Superhighway,” by Jube Shriver Jr, Los Angeles Times, December 27, 1994. Part 4, p. 1.
l Stock options: “Silicon Valley Loses Fight on Stock Options,” by Tom Abate, San Francisco Chronicle, December 17, 2004.
l School enrollment: “Enrollment in Education Institutions… Fall 1980 to Fall 2005,” National Center for Education Statistics, from its website @ http://nces.ed.gov//programs/digest/d03/tables/pdf/table2.pdf
l Industrial disclipline, immigrants and education: Cremin, Lawrence A., American Education: The National Experience 1783-1876 (New York: Harper Colophon, 1982) p. 351.
l Education apparatus: “At Long Last A Break In The Clouds,” by Ken Robinson, Times Educational Supplement, March 12, 2004, p. 23. Robinson is author of Out of our Minds: Learning to be Creative (Indianapolis: Capstone/Wiley, 2001)
l Pervasive tutoring: “Growth Spurt: The Rise of Tutoring in America,” by Margot Adler, NPR’s Morning Edition, June 6, 2005, from its website @ www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4676496
l Tutoring from India: “Internet Tutors from India Aid U.S. Kids with Math,” by Philip Reeves, NPR’s All Things Considered, February 12, 2005, from its website @ www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4497026
l Current state of education: Wiles, pp. iii, 4-6, 8-9, 181, 211-212.
l bsolete: Remarks by Bill Gates at the National Education Summit on High Schools, February 26, 2005, from the Gates Foundation website @ www.gatesfoundation.org/MediaCenter/Speeches/BillgSpeeches/
CHAPTER FORTY EIGHT
lBond ownership: “The Overstretch Myth,” by David H. Levy and Stuart S. Brown, Foreign Affairs, March/April, 2005, from its website @ http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20050301facomment84201/david-h-levey-stuart-s-brown/the-overstretch-myth.html
lColonial markets: McNeill, pp. 147-158.
lU.S. not imperialist: Minc, pp. 21, 22, 26-28.
l World War II deaths: Casualty figures that include civilians are difficult to collect in wartime and are often imprecise. International aggregates are even less precise. See “From Depression to Enormous Wealth; War Turned Impoverished U.S. Into a Superpower,” by Stanley Meisler, Los Angeles Times, August 31, 1989, Part 1, p. 1.
lTsunami deaths: “Measuring the Tsunami’s Wake,” Business Week, March 21, 2005, p. 12.
lSoviet casualties: “Summit Realties Temper Joy in Russia,” by James P. Gallagher, Chicago Tribune, May 10, 1995, p. 3.
lWar deaths in Germany (not including concentration camp victims): “World War II Casualties, 1939-1945,” a table from the Encarta website @ http://encarta.msn.com/media_701500550_761563737_-1_1/World_War_II_Casualties_1939–45.html
lJapan casualties: “The Sacred and the Dead: Japanese World War II Casualties in Body and Spirit,” Association for Asian Studies, prepared in conjunction with the group’s annual meeting March 31-April 3, 2005, from its website @ www.aasianst.org/absts/2005abst/Japan/j-31.htm
lU.S. losses: “Aug. 14, 1945: The Day the Fighting Stopped,” by David Lamb, Los Angeles Times, August 14, 1995, Part A, p. 1.
lSoviets cart off equipment: Donnelly, Desmond, Struggle for the World (New York: St. Martin’s, 1965) p. 219.
lMarshall Plan aid: “For European Recovery: The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Marshall Plan,” U.S. Library of Congress, from its website @ www.loc.gov/exhibits/marshall/m46.html
lAssistance to Japan: “Country Studies: Japan, The Economy – Patterns of Development,” U.S. Library of Congress, from its website @ www.country-studies.com/japan/the-economy---patterns-of-development.html
lWinston Churchill: “How One Man’s Short, Vague Speech Shaped the World,” by Rod MacLeish, Christian Science Monitor, June 5, 1997, p. 4.
lPopulation/world percent of Soviet bloc in 1950: (World) Total Midyear Population of the World, 1950,” U.S. Census Bureau, from its website @ www.census.gov/ipc/www/worldpop.html (East Germany’s population in 1950) “Country Studies – Germany, Population, Historical Background,” U.S. Library of Congress, from its website @ www.country-studies.com/germany/population---historical-background.html (All other countries) “Countries Ranked by Population: 1950,” U.S. Census Bureau, from its website @ www.census.gov/cgi-bin/ipc/idbrank.pl
lU.S. GDP, share of world total in early 1950s: Maddison, Angus, Chinese Economic Performance in the Long-Run (Paris: OECD Development Centre, 1998) Table 2.2a, “Shares of World GDP, 1700-1995,” from the University of Groningen website @ www.ggdc.net/home.shtml#top
l Manufacturing output in 1950s: “From Depression to Enormous Wealth: War Turned U.S. Into a Superpower,” by Stanley Meisler, Los Angeles Times, August 31, 1989, Part 1, p. 1.
lWorld, U.S. GDP in 1950: Maddison,
lWorld, U.S. GDP in 2003: “Field Listing – GDP,” World Factbook, from the publication’s website @ www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/fields/2001.html
lSneakers, candy, stamps: “Cashing in on the New World of Me,” by Julie Schlosser, Fortune, December 13, 2004, p. 244.
lSpider-Man: “A Multicultural Web,” by Jason Overdorf, Newsweek, July 26, 2004, p. 54.
l Internet censorship: “Chinese Censors and Web Users Match Wits,” by Howard W. French, New York Times, March 4, 2005, Section A, p. 10.
CHAPTER FORTY NINE
The Unseen Game of Games
l Neo-games: This complex new order, of which disorder is a necessary part, cannot by adequately described in yesterday’s jargon. Lacking a new vocabulary, we fall back, even in these pages, on terms like “democracy”, “liberal”, “globalism”, “multi-polar” and “multi-lateral”. But they do not do justice to the new, multi-dimensional reality.
l NGO protests: (Monsanto) “Farmers, Citizens and NGOs Protest Genetically Modified Wheat at Agriculture Minister’s Office,” Sierra Club of Canada, December 9, 2003, from its website @ www.sierraclub.ca/national/media/item.shtml?x=553 (Shell) “Oil Companies Under Fire Over Human Rights, Environment,” by Coralie Schaub, Agence France Presse, April 22, 2000. (McDonald’s). “Fires and Anti-Americanism Burn McDonald’s,” by Michelle Goldberg, Toronto Star, December 9, 2002, p. A1.
l Tsunami volunteers: “Tsunami Relief Effort Still Disorganized, Report Says,” by Ellen Nakashima, Washington Post, January 23, 2005, p. A15.
l NGO proliferation: Twenty-five years ago, in testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, we reported that over 3,000 NGOs were operating internationally. Today there are more than 50,000
l Sex ratios in China: “ ‘Bare Branches’ and Danger in Asia, by Valerie M. Hudson and Andrea M. Den Boer, Washington Post, July 4, 2004, p. B7.
World population growth: “Lower Birth Rate, AIDS Help Slow World Population Growth,” Associated Press, March 23, 2004.
l Bin Laden: “9/11 Terrorism: Global Economic Costs,” by Dick K. Nanto, citing an article from rediff.com, Congressional Research Service, October 5, 2004, p. 1.
l Lower 9/11 estimates: “Review of Studies of the Economic Impact of the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on the World Trade Center,” Government Accounting Office, May 29, 2002, from its website @ www.gao.gov/new.items/d02700r.pdf
l Aftershocks, grandiose plan: “9/11 Terrorism: Global Economic Costs,” by Dick K. Nanto, p. 3.
l Growth : “Our Religio-Secular World,” by Martin E. Marty, citing David B. Barrett and Todd M. Johnson. Barrett and Johnson are co-editors, along with George T. Kurian, of the World Christian Encyclopedia (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2001)
l Shifting Christian populations: “The Next Christianity,” by Philip Jenkins, Atlantic Monthly, October, 2002 p. 53.
l Muslims in Europe: “Islam Shaping a New Europe,” by Evan Osnos, Chicago Tribune, December 19, 2004, Special Report, p. 1.
l Muslims in non-Muslim societies, deterritorialization: Roy, p. 18-20.
l Oil prices: “Oil Prices Rocket to Record Highs Near 58 Dollars,” Agence France Presse, March 18, 2005.
l Fuel cells and GM: “GM Hoping for Beijing’s Help in Promoting Cars That Run on Hydrogen,” by Stephanie Hoo, Associated Press, November 18, 2003.
l Wahabism: “Iranians Recruit Suicide Brigade,” by Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson of the Knight-Ridder Foreign Service, published in the St. Paul Pioneer Press, June 14, 2004, p. 1A.
l Executive summary: “The Arab Human Development Report, 2003,” United Nations Development Program and the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development.
l Arabs and books: The report pointed out that only 4.4 translations of foreign books were published per million people in the Arab world each year during the early 1980s. By contrast, the “corresponding rate for Hungary was 519 books… and in Spain 920 books.” It argued that development would be aided if Arabs were more open to the outside world.
lWall without doors: “The Arab Human Development Report, 2003,” p. 6.
Epilogue: The Prologue is Past
l Keller on pessimism: “Thoughts on the Business of Life,” Forbes, January 16, 1998, p. 124.
l Eisenhower on pessimism: “Wisdom found in Words About War,” by Dennie Hall, reviewing The Military Quotation Book by James Charlton (New York: Thomas Dunne, 2002) Daily Oklahoman, March 10, 2002, Destinations, p.5.
l Stirner: “Stirner’s Life and Work,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,” from its website @ http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/max-stirner/
l Scopes trial: “Rhea Courthouse To Get Statue of Scopes Trial Prosecutor Bryan,” Associated Press, February 25, 2005.
l Intelligent design: “Not Intelligent, and Surely Not Science,” by Michael Shermer, Los Angeles Times, March 30, 2005, Part B, p. 11.
l Energy consumption in 2001, oil’s share, consumption in 2025: “International Energy Outlook 2004,” U.S. Department of Energy, from its website @ www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/world.html
l Oil declines: “Energy: A Global Overview,” by Matthew R. Simmons, a presentation for the Stanford GSB Global Conference, November 10, 2004.
l Walker on fuel-cell power: Interviewed June 7, 2005.
l Venter: “Scientists Use DNA to Make Virus,” British Broadcasting Corp., November 13, 2003, from its website @ http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3268259.stm
l Biological hydrogen: “Stanford Researchers Work to Create Fuel from Bacteria,” by Rose Jenkins, Stanford Daily, February 8, 2005.
l Berke: “Cheap Solar,” by Brian Dumaine and Julia Boorstin, Fortune Small Business, February 1, 2005, p. 35.
l La Rance, sun power: “Tidal Energy” and “Ocean Technologies,” U.S. Department of Energy, February 7, 2003, from its website @ www.eere.energy.gov/RE/ocean.html
l Other tide-based systems: “What’s So Special About Norway’s New Power Station?” by Tim Radford, London Guardian, September 25, 2003, p. 2.
l Taylor and Kalam on from Moon: “Moon Gas May Solve Earth’s Energy Crisis,” ABC News, November 26, 2004, from its website @ www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200411/s12522715.htm
l World population doubled: “Total Midyear Population for the World: 1950-2050,” U.S. Census Bureau, from its website @ www.census.gov/ipc/www.worldpop.html
lLifespans up 42 percent: “World Population Ageing: 1950-2050,” U.N. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, from its website @ www.un.org/esa/population/publications/worldageing19502050/
lPoor-country babies: “Getting Better All The Time,” The Economist, November 10, 2001, p. 3.
lSafe water: “A Billion Thirsts Quenched,” The Economist, August 28, 2004.
l 50 vs. 500 years: “Facts and Figures on Poverty,” U.N. Development Program, from its website @ www.undp.org/teams/english/facts.htm
l Age of universe: Singh, Simon, Big Bang: The Origin of the Universe (New York: Fourth Estate, 2004) p. 482.
l 6,000 years ago: “God or Science?” by Mark Sappenfield and Mary Beth McCauley, Christian Science Monitor, November 23, 2004, p. 11.
l Nanotech applications: “Nanotechnology Size Matters,” by Jim Akin, PC, July 13, 2004, p. 134. Also, “The Business of Nanotech,” by Stephen Baker and Adam Aston, Business Week, February 14, 2005, p. 67.
l Bacon: Henry, p. 1.
lInternational System units: “Prefixes of the SI,” University of Exeter Centre for Innovation in Mathematics Teaching, from its website @ www.ex.ac.uk/cimt/dictunit/dictunit.htm
l Wars: Brownstone,